Monday, June 30, 2008

IT-industry, which surprised us

This is really "news, which surprised us". The largest search engine Yandex in RuNet investbankami tentatively estimated at five billion dollars…. Founder and гендиректор "Yandex" Arkady Volozh, as well as chairman of the board of directors ru-Net Holdings (one of the shareholders "Yandex") Leonid Boguslavsky refused to comment on these data. According to the media business, such a huge figure was voiced during the competition by the organizer IPO (initial issue of shares) search engine, which is scheduled for autumn this year. I recall that the company "Yandex", the owner of the portal Yandex.ru, was founded in 2000. Yandex, a daily audience of more than 5 million people, ranks second among non-English speaking after Chinese search engines Baidu. Revenue "Yandex" in 2007 reached $167 million

Corporation Microsoft, committing bypass maneuver, again taking the "conquest" Yahoo. Quote from a press release dated 18 May: "In the light of new developments since the denial of Microsoft Corporation acquisition of Yahoo, Microsoft announced the continuing search for opportunities to improve and expand their online services and advertising business". Details of current negotiations will not be disclosed. However, top managers of Microsoft (read: Steve Ballmer) argue that the corporation has not intended to purchase the entire Yahoo. According to experts, there are several options: 1) purchase of blocking or controlling stake to Yahoo, a transaction can take place in several stages - for example, with options to purchase a large stake dokupku 2) Microsoft could repeat its deal with Yahoo to Facebook (and most likely). Then it acquired 1.6% of popular social network and obtained an exclusive right to advertise overseas deployment. In favour of this assumption primarily statement said Steve Ballmera that the value of Yahoo for Microsoft to decline if the search engine will transfer management of advertising Google. Similar experiments on cooperation Yahoo and Google have already raised.

It seems that a key role in the resumption of negotiations played a billionaire Carl Ikan, who began a massive buying shares of Yahoo. He managed to consolidate 10 million shares and options to purchase another 49 million This is about 4% of the company. And Karl Ikan not alone: in fact, he oversaw those shareholders who favoured a merger with Microsoft. Now "rebels" want to replace the current intransigence on the Yahoo board of directors more amenable and have already prepared their own list of candidates. Carl Ikan considered one of the most Guide investors in the IT-industry: it almost always seeks its own. He has made care chapter Motorola, as well as changes in corporate Blockbuster and Mylan Laboratories.

Companies HP and EDS announced the signing of the agreement, under which HP will acquire EDS shares at a price of $25 per piece, with the full value of acquired companies is estimated at about $13.9 billion Terms of the transaction were unanimously adopted by the board of directors of both companies. The deal will be finalized in the II half of 2008 and will allow HP to more than double revenue service lines, which in the 2007 fiscal year totaled approximately $16.6 billion Total revenue service businesses of both companies at the end of each period of fiscal year 2007 exceeded $38 billion and the total staff of the business amounted to 210 thousand people in more than 80 countries. HP intends to create a new business group under the brand "EDS-company comprising NR". Its headquarters will be located in the city of Plano in Texas, ibid, where the central office is now at EDS. According to HP plans new business leadership group will undertake Ronald A. Rittenmeyer, acting chairman of the board of directors, President and CEO EDS, which will join the executive board of HP and will be directly subordinate to Mark Hurd, chairman of the board of directors and CEO of HP. The acquisition of EDS - another step in broadening the spectrum of HP services. The merger will provide the following services: I T-outsourcing, including data center services, jobs, networking and security management; outsourcing business processes, including administrative resources for health and working with patients' requests, financial processes work with client databases and outsourcing of HR; applications, including development, modernization and management; consulting and integration; technological services. The joint company will propose solutions to such areas as health, manufacturing, financial services, energy, transport, communications, light industry, retail trade and public sector.

A social network Facebook has its own payment system. Currently, social network users who have existing bank accounts, can transfer money to each other, leaving the limits Facebook. For the realization of this project meets the European online payment system Moneybookers. It is expected that users will soon Facebook, signs up for their banking details, will also be able to pay various bills and transfer funds to charitable organizations. The Commission Moneybookers with each transaction does not exceed 1%. Typically, it is equal to 40 eurocents. Currently, Moneybookers audience is growing at 9000 people daily, and the entire service takes more than 5 million people. With Moneybookers work projects such as Wikipedia, Skype and Unicef. In turn, Facebook brings together 70 million users and is the second largest social network in the world. For the year grew resource audience several times. Meanwhile, an American research company eMarketer has adjusted its earnings projections last year's social networks. If in December 2007 - first it was assumed that advertisers spent on social network in 2008 for $1.6 billion, now it turns out: they are ready raskoshelitsya only on the $1.4 billion In the future, the same social networks revenues from advertising and will even grow, but not so rapidly as the market was expecting. Thus, if eMarketer earlier claimed that the accounts of social networks by 2011 will be $2.7 billion, now Western researchers are confident: no more than $2.6 billion, and only by 2012. Indicators this year spoil sites-leaders: MySpace earns this year 53% of all ad money social networks, in monetary terms, $755 million instead of the promised $850 million, and Facebook - $265 million instead of $305 million Experts eMarketer sure: the reason why advertisers do not hurry to spend money on advertising in social networks - the lack (still) effective new advertising models to meet the market. All recently submitted - MySpace HyperTargeting initiative and the concept of Social Ads on Facebook - require improvements, as well as make it difficult for advertisers habitual planning an advertising campaign and evaluate its effectiveness. However, advertisers social networks, experts believe eMarketer, will remain forever youth brands, because these Internet sites today - one of the few truly effective tools to attract younger audiences. And more on advertising. Microsoft Corporation has enabled advertisers to place banners in the mobile versions of Windows Live Messenger and Windows Live Hotmail. Mobile users will see banners in the U.S., Britain, France and Spain. Simultaneously with the launch of mobile banner advertising Microsoft has expanded the number of countries for which there are mobile services Windows Live, from 22 to 49. The company also plans to introduce support contextual advertising in mobile search Live Search Mobile. Now this service is tested in the U.S., and in the second half of the year should appear in other countries. But Microsoft - far from being the first company, to propose a similar service for advertisers. In April a similar service launched Google. Banners on mobile phones also make it possible to place Yahoo!, AdMob and Third Screen.

The Commission on Securities and Exchange Commission USA (SEC) filed a lawsuit against eight former top managers of companies America Online, accusing them of overstatement of income from Internet advertising more than a billion dollars. Four of them agreed with the charge. They will pay about $8 million fines. The claim was filed in the District Court Southern District of New York against the financial directors of AOL John Michael Kelly and Joseph Rippa and another six people. They are charged with creating a fraudulent scheme, under which customers were invited to enter into two contracts, while paying only for single occupancy. Thus AOL profits virtually doubled. According to the SEC, such a scheme operated from 2000 to 2002. This is not the first to the SEC sued AOL. In 2005, managers of companies are also accused of overstatement of income AOL. According to the commission, profits were overstated by $500 million To close the deal, AOL agreed to pay $300 million of fines.

A company News Corp. announced the launch of a new advertising network on the Internet under the name Worthnet.Fox. It will bring together some 30 sites, among them - The Wall Street Journal, Barron's and MarketWatch. The network will specialize in financial resources and tourism subjects with the audience mostly in Latin America. Manage network will Worthnet.Fox Wall Street Journal Digital Network and Fox Networks, owned by News Corp.

Major manufacturers of microprocessors, Intel and AMD, exchanged volleys. The company submitted a new brand of AMD - AMD Game! It is intended to refer to computer components at AMD, optimized for high-definition video games. AMD Vice President Nigel Desso on this occasion stated: "AMD Game! tells buyers to your computer, optimally designed for video games. The user does not well understand the computer components ". Machinery, markiruemye logo AMD Game!, Planned to gather for chipsets AMD, AMD Phenom multicore processors or AMD Turion Ultra, which is expected out shortly, as well as a series of graphic cards ATI Radeon HD 3000. Platform AMD Game! already available from manufacturers such as Alienware, Cyberpower, iBuypower, Maingear and Velocity Micro. The emergence of new PCs in retail sales is expected in the second half of the year. In turn, Intel will issue autumn Quad server processors Tukwila. Tukwila is designed for installation in the powerful servers that work with large volumes of data, and in the mainframe. The first servers based on Tukwila will appear in early 2009, In addition to the four cores, chip Intel Tukwila will be equipped with 30 MB cache. Processor technology used in the QuickPath Interconnect provides accommodation memory controller directly on the crystal processor. Clock frequency Intel Tukwila will be two gigahertz. Building the chip would tehprotsessu 65 nm. Translation is the production of processors on 45 nm Tukwila tehprotsess Intel has no plans. Instead, the company expects in 2009 to release the successor Tukwila, code-named Poulson, which will be processed at 32 - nanometer process technology. In the meantime, Intel plans to reduce the prices of its processors for desktops in the III quarter of this year. In the same period, new models will be presented 4 - nuclear processors. Productive 4 - Nuclear Core 2 Quad Q9650 will operate at a frequency of 3 GHz and to launch sales have cost $530. Version Core 2 Quad Q9550 will fall in price while 40% - podesheveet from $530 to $316. Sale price today on a Core 2 Quad 9450 will be removed from production, it will replace the 2.66 GHz model Core 2 Quad 9400, estimated at $266. Models Core 2 Quad Q9300 and Q6700 leave the market, leaving version Q6600 as the sole representative of a family of 65 nm 4 - nuclear CPU. This processor podesheveet slightly - from $224 to $203. In a number of dual-CPU model appears 3.33 GHz Core 2 Duo E8600 at a price of $266. Core 2 Duo E8300 will be removed from production, and versions of Core 2 Duo E8500 and E8400 podesheveyut to $183 and $163 to $266 and $183 respectively. All prices - wholesale (for lots of 1000 pieces). Incidentally, the cost of several Intel chipsets will grow because of the earthquake in the Chinese province of Sichuan. It is about three chipsets: G31, G33 and 945GC. Now these chipsets account for about 45% of all sales of chipsets. It is expected that their costs grow by 9-27%. Nevertheless, the cost of motherboard, probably will not change. The increase will be offset by cost components producers of such boards who wish to maintain their market share. The plant for the production of components of Intel Corporation in Sichuan Province remained intact, but local transportation infrastructure badly damaged.

Of the company Motorola goes Nottenburg Ritchie, director of strategic planning and - since December 2007 - the first - on technology. According to press secretary Jennifer Erickson Motorola, the dismissal of Ritchie Nottenburga became known on May 15. The reason for the resignation was "the desire to exploit new business opportunities". I recall that former CEO Motorola Ed Zander, leave his post on January 1, 2008, Nottenburga appointed to the post of technical director instead Pedmasri Uorriora, who left the company in December 2007 - also go to "implement new business opportunities". In addition, following the Edom Zanderom in February 2008 - resigned from the company of Tom Meredith, Chief Financial Officer. Then in March resign Kenneth Keller, one of the main experts on marketing, and Stu Reid, president of Motorola Mobile Devices. After that Motorola has lost two more of their top managers - Mike Fendzhera, President of Motorola Mobile Devices unit in Europe, the Middle East region and Africa (EMEA), and Steve Strobelya, financial manager of Motorola, left the company on their own.

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Flash as a threat

In the United States to order the company SanDisk has been a special study on the risks posed by unprotected USB-drives. Its results are daunting: it turns out most companies to at least half underestimate the risks of unprotected workers use fleshek. At the same time, is now the order of 77% of employees of international corporations are using personal USB-drives for storage of corporate data. As is typical, these figures are quite adequate for the post-Soviet space.

Compact, easy to use and mobility - these are the main advantages USB-drives. But they pose very high risk of data loss. Results of anonymous surveys conducted by the order SanDisk, have shown that most users to copy flash confidential personal data about customers (25%), financial information (17%), business plans (15%), information on the staff of the company ( 13%), marketing plans (13%), intellectual property (6%), as well as source code software (6%). In doing so, I T-heads of units and internal security services in most cases do not even know about the real extent of unprotected flash drives in their organizations. Statistical information that 77% of staff use personal flash drives for storage and transfer of official data, has become a real shock to most specialists on informbezopasnosti. Prior to this most ambitious of the interviewees I T-specialists estimated the proportion of employees using personal flash for official purposes, no more than 35%. C Senior Director of Marketing at SanDisk unit on corporate decisions Jill Mayldvors both commented on the figures: "Most directors IT understands that leaking information might lead to identity theft, kidnapping intellectual property or disclosure of trade secrets, as well as lead to significant damage in terms of image , And from a financial point of view. The results of our survey indicate that, despite some awareness about the possible risks associated with the use of unprotected USB-drives, I T-heads of departments have not yet begun to formulate effective policies, technological solutions and explanatory work among officials in order to reduce these risks.

A significant reduction of risks such as increased mobility and productivity of employees, are possible only in case the administrative decision (on the level of leadership) for the deployment of intellectual systems management devices, monitoring systems and application of appropriate corporate-wide security policies ". But most of these corporate-wide security policy simply misfortune. All the same poll found that about 23% of users or were not familiar with corporate policies against flash drives, or only knew about the existence of such a politician, but had no idea about their essence. In turn, 44% of respondents stated that their company does not prohibit copying of corporate data on personal USB-flash drives. Another 16% of those surveyed responded that know nothing about this kind of ban. And only 17% of corporate users exactly know that their company there is a prohibition on copying corporate data on personal flash drives. I T-specialists, according to the poll, far gone from ordinary users. Approximately 21% I-T specialists are confident that their company's employees is only slightly familiar with the corporate policies aytishnikov 33% of respondents felt that staff directly familiar with security policy, 28% believed that employees are familiar with corporate rules, and only 19% believe that the staff is fully aware of actions taken in company rules and policies on information security.

If you compare the situation in the U.S. with the situation in Russia and other post-Soviet countries, it turns out that while approximately the same level of competence users "post" specialists and staff informbezopasnosti I-T units in the organizations are very well aware of the dangers of uncontrolled use of removable media and external devices. By studying the problem of insiders, analysts Perimetrix company conducted a study "Insayderskie threat in Russia 2008", during which interviewed more than 450 large organizations. The result is: staffing specialists in information security managers and IT-Services acknowledged that it is mobile drives in recent times have become the most dangerous channel leakage of confidential data. Flash received 74% of the votes Who Was Well Ahead of electronic mail (58%), web (26%) and printers (18%). Alexei Share, Director of Business Development Company Perimetrix, so the results of the study commented: "The highest executive face large and medium-sized organisations which do not relate to the subject of IT or information security, is also well aware that their staff not to store confidential information on the flash because this may lead to accidental or malicious leaks. Thus, the Russian business and government organizations are well aware of the danger of flash drives and never underestimate this channel diversion ". But in the well-known Russian company InfoWatch have a different opinion. Chief InfoWatch analyst Nikolai Fedotov told journalists: "The problem of leakage of corporate information through fleshek underestimated. But exactly to the same extent to which underestimated the risk of leaks at any other mobile carriers. Our monitoring shows that a very large share of leaking information (39% of the cases published in 2007) relates to losses and laptop theft. A flash of losing even easier. And it may also steal. Nevertheless, such drives are widely used for confidential data. All of the relates to nezlonamerennym leaks (such in 2007, was approximately 71%). With respect to intentional theft of data, the role of flash drives is evaluated on merit - as informbezopasnosti services, and hackers ".

The problem is clear. Naturally raises the question: how to deal with leaks of confidential data through flash drives? Practice shows: one bans and explanatory work with the staff of the problem of leakage of information can not be resolved. Direct prohibitions in the form of USB-closing ports simply impede the normal work: all the same flash - too handy tool for business data exchange, in most organizations flash drive has long been replaced "starorezhimnye" diskettes. From outreach too little wing: the human factor in the form of eternal hope in the air nepobedim. Chief analyst Nikolai Fedotov InfoWatch formulates so: "Frequent leakage associated with the loss of laptops, have not resulted in the West to ban their use. The leadership of enterprises beginning to impose mandatory data encryption. A notebook manufacturers have begun to build strong cryptography directly into the hard disk controller. Manufacturers of flash drives inevitably must go the same way. Unfortunately, the Russian trend that we are seeing quite pulls us in another direction. Instead of data protection imposed bans stupid. Including ban on the use of flash drives. While basic encryption - better ". Many experts, however, note that there are other ways to make use of flash drives more secure. For example, can be monitored and even real-time analysis of all data on recordable devices through ports USB, or, for example, CD/DVD- discs. After that the information collected is placed in storage, where a certain period of time, and becomes available for fast full-text search.

A classic example for these purposes - The program SearchInform DeviceSniffer - one of the components of the contour information security company "SoftInform". Through this program, among other things, it is easy to determine who among employees too often use work time for personal writing of data that have nothing to do with the responsibilities entrusted to him, on removable media. And, of course, if such a program-Comptroller of any insider poosterezhetsya run leg in the secrets of the company. However, techniques protect sensitive computer data from insiders - is a separate topic, which we still have to go back.

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Saturday, June 28, 2008

Chaebol went to peddle

There is such a word in Korea - "chebol". It denotes the largest industrial corporation, a conglomerate, really affecting the economy. Examples of "cheboley" - all known LG, Hyundai and, of course, Samsung. It is the latest "chebol" now found itself in the centre of global attention because of the scandalous resignation of the board of directors and heads of several other top managers. Here you can see a lot of interesting things.

To begin with, probably, have to explain some purely Korean characteristics. Today, South Korea - the fourth largest economy in Asia, modern high-tech state. But the social organization of South Korea remained at a medieval level. Explain: the entire population of Korea is divided into clans, and each yuzhnokoreets prichislyaet themselves to any of them. A total of about 70 clans. And top of each of the clans usually controls a "chebol". Lee Hong-hee, 66 - year old head of a clan, still led by Samsung Group (Samsung is translated from Korean means "three stars") and is considered the most influential South Korean businessman. Samsung - it is the largest South Korean industrial conglomerate, known brand and one of the pillars of its powerful economy. We Samsung is most known as a manufacturer of electronics and home appliances. But the reality is that industrial group Samsung does business in the financial, shipbuilding, automobile, chemical, entertainment and many other fields.

Samsung manages trading networks and manufactures microelectronics, and also owns several banks. A total of Samsung Group includes 60 companies. And now news, literally shook South Korea: resigned president of the board of directors of Samsung, Lee Hong-hee himself, driving a "chebolem" more than 20 years. Several generations of Li managed corporation since its inception in 1938. And now, many analysts say: the resignation of Lee - a first step in removing Li family, many members of which occupy senior positions in Samsung, a conglomerate of management. The issue only, whether one of the country's richest families back from the company. Let me remind you that himself scandal flared in January this year when investigators Korean prosecutors have begun an investigation into the top management Samsung on charges of creating a special secret fund to bribe officials. The fund allegedly was needed to avoid persecution by the authorities because of a scandal involving illicit transactions in company shares. In April, Lee Hong-hee was questioned by investigators. His guilt, he admitted, and also stated that any fund in bribes Samsung has never been established. The investigation is confirmed, but it turned out that Lee still violated the law. Now the most influential South Korean businessman accused of tax evasion. C son Lee Hong-hee, is still employed as vice-president of Samsung Electronics, also resigned. It is expected that he will continue to work in Samsung on another post, presumably in one of the foreign missions. Notably, over time, Lee Jr. was supposed to take place in the Samsung his father. In addition, Samsung Group will leave four more top-manager - all of the "family". In addition, Samsung committed the leaders to dissolve the strategic planning department, which investigators believe an opaque structure that can affect all affiliated with a group of 60 companies including Samsung Electronics - leader of Samsung Group. The point is that, although Lee clan members themselves have only a small proportion of shares of Samsung, they may affect the business of industrial conglomerate through a complex structure of cross other firms. At the top of the pyramid - Non-public Everland, which manages the amusement park, actually a holding company for the entire Samsung. Centralized control of the company Samsung allows management to be more independent from shareholders and investors, successfully implementing long-term strategies.

Care Li from the post of chairman of the board of directors Samsung naturally aroused serious concerns among a significant part of South Korean analysts who believe that with his resignation in "chebole" a power vacuum, and management structure would be disrupted. That is why Lee Hong-hee has been arrested and remains at large, although he threatens to life imprisonment. Korean prosecutors formally stated that the arrest of a businessman cause substantial damage to Samsung, that generally affect the economy of the country. The fear is logical, given the fact that Samsung provides a fifth of the total South Korean exports. Need to be fair to say that many companies belonging to the group, long and extremely successful work and compete in the international market, so Lee is unlikely to care affect their operations and financial performance. However, in order to reduce the influence of Li family at Samsung, will require much more time and effort. So, despite shaken corporate scandals, in general affairs at Samsung are very good. Samsung Electronics has recently published a report on the work in I quarter of 2008 Reported Samsung revenue in the period from January to March inclusive, was $ 17.2 billion This is approximately 19% higher than a similar figure for the first quarter of 2007, net profit companies during the period reached $ 2.2 billion

For comparison: Samsung year earlier received $ 1.6 billion net profit. It turns out that the amount for the year Samsung quarterly profit rose by 37%. Impressive result for such a large corporation, long ago passed the period of rapid growth. Top managers Samsung indicate that in the past quarter has seen good demand for LCD panel large size - with a diagonal of 46 inches or more. As a result, business companies associated with the production of LCD-TVs, Samsung has brought to 53% more revenue than a year earlier. To consolidate the success, Samsung jointly with Sony plans to open new enterprise for the production of LCD panels. It will be invested approximately $ 2.7 billion Other successful trend - cellular phones, which are growing rapidly. Last quarter the company has sold 33% more ringtones than a year earlier. As a result, to date, Samsung controls 16.4% of the world market of cellular phones, yielding to the volume of supplies only Finnish giant Nokia. But sales of memory modules Samsung DRAM production in the first quarter of this year declined by about 2%. However, this is attributable to the overall downturn in the industry. But in any case, now shares the cost of growing and Samsung has already reached two-year maximum.

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Friday, June 27, 2008

AMD was honoured by 2008 Climate Protection Award

The Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection (EPA) announced that the company AMD (NYSE: AMD) was honoured Climate Protection Award in recognition of active companies to protect the global climate by creating energy-efficient products, planning and management of production facilities, production of educational programs. As a charter member of Climate Leaders Partnership program and a founding member organization of The Green Grid, the company AMD leads the world to energy efficient computation, while be environmentally responsible company.
AMD has proved its commitment to protect the climate and awarded for the following achievements:
• Reducing emissions: Reducing emission standards greenhouse gases by more than 50%, which exceeds the EPA Climate Leaders set the target of reducing by 40% by 2007 (compared with the level of emissions AMD in 2002) *. In addition, the company AMD, being among the first companies that have joined in 1996 to the programme EPA PFC Reduction Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry, is a leader in reducing emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFC), related to the manufacture of semiconductor wafers. Company AMD has reduced its emissions of perfluorocarbons 98% compared with 1995 levels. These efforts are aimed at implementing the tasks of the Board World Semiconductor Council - reduce emissions of perfluorocarbons in semiconductor production worldwide.
• Energy Efficiency products: assistance to other companies in minimizing energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases in the industry thanks to advanced energy efficiency products. For example, technology AMD PowerNow! with optimized power management (Optimized Power Management) enhances productivity ratio-to-watts for AMD Opteron processors by adjusting the processor performance under pressure. The technology AMD PowerNow! can reduce energy consumption in a position to idle up to 75%, allowing you to create less noisy machines with less heat release.
• Commitment to climate protection: Emphasizing corporate transparency, the company AMD has become one of the first to provide its plans to protect the global climate. Since 2001, AMD produces annually updated records with its commitments, goals and strategies of reducing the impact of the company on global warming. AMD continues to adhere to the commitments set ourselves the following goal - reducing the emission standards causing greenhouse effect gases by another 33% by 2010.

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Thursday, June 26, 2008

Popular on Artificial Intelligence

Of course, originally planned art-workshop on creating autonomous robots. Your humble servant even made a structural outline of such material, but… after I understood that without basic knowledge in the field of artificial intelligence would be difficult for the reader to understand something - or rather, completely penetrate the meaning. Therefore, in a few rooms, we will consider this topic, which is valid not only for robots, but for most modern software.

Artificial intelligence (AI) as a separate area of science has just recently, almost simultaneously with many other current major disciplines - such as cybernetics, neural networks, other branches of basic: medicine, psychology, economics. Meanwhile, most of those who first confronted with this notion, it might seem that artificial intelligence - is an attempt to fully replace the human brain machine. Maybe because it originally anticipated. But, for example, in one of the mistakes than Leonardo da Vinci (if it can be considered a mistake)? He, like many inventors, his predecessors, it is anticipated that flight is possible on condition the establishment apparatus simulator poultry. While actually not a very successful example, because in the modern aviation, we see a clear link with the biological world - underwater. But in a number of books on this particular AI set an example for illustration as a comparison:). We will take another example that you can see on the streets - cars. No biological form on Earth does not have such a mechanism of movement. In doing so, cars and trains are the kinds of high-speed ground transportation. If not invent them, a mock humanoid or other species that we can see examples of fantastic "steam" of people and horses at the end of the XIX century, the optimal such decisions would be minimal. The third example… you dotronulis to obzhigayusche hot FBR. After reading some scientific works, it can be concluded that in this case, you start to analyze the situation in the brain to compute the most optimal solution, perebiraya it from the many options as possible or not. But what makes people? Just otdergivaet hand, not even thinking about their actions. Refleks.

***

The creation of artificial intelligence - is primarily a difficult task, if possible at best shared some simple. In today's presentation of this science are more to use the notion of agents who transform their own perception of their own actions. To this can be attributed boldly and any computer program, and the robot at work. But the recurrence of Rights no concrete action. Among other definitions AI can be found more comprehensive - for example, "Automation of reasonable conduct". Not long ago, namely in about 2003 - year, was published a table comparing the number of neurons of the human brain to the number of transistors in today's PCs. And Moore's law has been applied, under which the number of transistors in the calculation of per unit area increases exactly twice for the period 1,5-2 years. And it applies even more to statistical studies, because this trend has occurred over the past 25 years, if not more. This table published virtually all media, in one way or another connected with high-tech, because finding was remarkable: the number VMRabolu by 2020. But whether this means? ..

In fact, our brains can not be compared with one computer - a whole structured and interconnected network. And in 80 - or 90 x - x could create something similar - for example, one computer is responsible for vision and image analysis, the second - for the hearing and speech recognition, the third - for tactile sensations, the fourth - for chemical analysis, the fifth - for a decisions, etc. This is possible? Of course! But… no algorithms! Just no! Not invented… I do not really transistors in the case. What we offer mathematics, very difficult, in principle, moreover, is different from the natural perception. For example, our auditory system does not use Fourier transformation for the expansion complex sound waves on some simple. It simply does not know and apply the methods of other more universal - for each frequency has a special receptor. Vision works on similar principles, but with its specifics. By the way, to its biological essence of modern technology and scientists are closest. But, returning to the same ears, it is worth noting optimal modern solutions, because the Fourier transform plus computer is much easier creation of a full model of human hearing. Therefore, science II only in private implies repetition rights, and actually more close to programming agents or the same "automation of reasonable conduct". But, on the one hand, mathematically can be done very much. And since we remembered about Fourier, then Jean-Baptiste and surprisingly suited to further narration. Very vivid example of history, when the French scientist tried to decrypt hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt (with Napoleon he was governor of Nizhny Egypt). It must be said that Fourier, addressing this challenge, spears broke and said that linguistics beyond mathematical analysis. He turned and rights, and no rights at the same time. Do not edit because the Egyptian language alphabet issued his disciple, and rights for the reason which has been widely discussed theorists and practice of artificial intelligence and subsequently with what we face now.

Turing Test

Alan Turing was one of the founders of artificial intelligence as a scientific discipline, or rather, not even discipline, and a scientific direction. In principle, it is their studies and work more reminiscent of fiction-practice. That is a very creative person, plus a good scientific basis. Incidentally, under his leadership in 1940 was the first operational computer Heath Robinson (named after the cartoonist). This was electromechanical device that was intended to decrypt messages transmitted Germans. In 1943 - m the same team of scientists created a more powerful computer Colossus, which already used electronic lamps, a range of appointments has become more broad. Also known Tyuring that wrote one of the first algorithms for playing chess and wanted him to realize at the same Colossus, but he is not authorized the British Government. Therefore, instead of machines for the algorithms worked himself on the progress of computation spent on the half hour, and the technology subsequently became known as "paper Turing machine". On the scientist says a lot, so if you choose to refer to specialist literature and we will continue to talk about AI.

So why was pronounced the word "fiction"? The point is that it was a scientific romanticism. Just as Isaac Ayzimov withdrawn rules for robots, robots themselves when, in fact, has not been as such. Similarly, the Turing assumed, as can behave computer in the future, but as can not. Naturally, he tried to equate it to humans, so originally envisaged the possibility of communicating with computers at the usual language, the availability of computer memory (the ability to store machine), automatic formation of logical conclusions and ability to learn. In doing so, he felt the same machine could not (give the full list): "be good, generous, beautiful, friendly, proactive, have a sense of humour, to distinguish truth from falsehood, to commit mistakes, love, to enjoy strawberries and ice cream, make falls in love with themselves , To learn, to use words correctly, be subject to their own thoughts, to show the same diversity in behavior, like people really create anything new ". Yet Turing assumed that the machine will be able to act intellectually, under the implied rather than no ability to think, as an intellectual presence of conduct. He published an article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence", where the proposed test, which later became widely known as "Turing test". The essence of it is that after the five-person communication and programs within the traffic in the first 30% was unable to determine who was with him in touch: a living person or a computer. Alan Turing even predicted that computers will pass this test in 2000. In principle, as you understand, all very, very conditional. For example, several years ago, your humble servant was a living witness to how people communicated with voice mail on your mobile phone, informing the balance in the account. So he called the amount and character made this key phrase: "It is my understanding, but I am hour ago introduced a new amount! When they are listed? "More seriously, much depends on the issues, the level of perception and the conversation situation. Therefore Turing test himself with many now associated with the same laws for robots Ayzimova. They have, but it is not the basic rules. In other words, a scientific show-business.

The Chinese room

It is known mental experiment. In fact, what then occupied the minds of scientists, now it is obvious to any PC user. But to keep ahead of the future had to use imagination, "the paper machines". So John and Sirl suggested purely mental experiment. Imagine a person in a closed room. He understands only English. On the table lay a pile of papers, some of which are empty and the other documents filled with incomprehensible records in Chinese. There is also a reference book-manual in English, which may help in decoding. And now, through a special opening in the room are reported in Chinese with some guides to action - for example, make a new record, document or find a particular character or move the pile from one place to another. Accordingly, the man himself - this processor, a pile of paper - memory book - the program. This is inside. And apparently it looks like sending queries / commands and receiving
answers / results at the Chinese. And if you ask the system itself, whether it knows the Chinese, you get an affirmative answer. The system could even Turing test. But if you ask the same question Englishman or a book - a negative. Thus, we come to a basic problem II, namely the identity and understanding. Sirl then withdrew several laws, axioms that the programmes are the essence of syntax, but wisdom in its full presentation implies semantics or mental content (understanding the meaning of the word). One syntax for semantics is not enough. Incidentally, for the moment questions of semantics remain unsolved, although many can be seen fairly good intermediate realizations, how would precede, but…

Bridge completion

Let us now think: Why did Fourier has rights in his remark? In fact, he meant primarily semantics. The same deciphered ancient languages in the main largely due to the fact that there were analogues in the other known records. Incidentally, there are an outstanding example of the Second World. Americans to ensure that their messages could not decrypt Japanese specialists, attracted representatives… a small Indian tribe, which has its own language. And all of us, respectively, were on it. The Japanese were unable to do anything in this situation. And let us think: Does a need semantics machines, actually? Your humble servant saw many modern algorithms, there is little that some of them worked and actively participated in projects to create them, but almost all of them, in fact, for machines are "Chinese Room". This is where the abstract. In fact, automated semantic search, the appropriate "understanding" computer or robot realizable. And the principles of such algorithms is understandable to our contemporaries, with a friend obektnoorientirovannym programming, high-level languages, yes… even with the notion of classes.

To be continued ...

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Something about earnings of top managers in IT

Forbes Magazine published its regular list of the most highly paid top managers. The methodology of this ranking takes into account official salaries leader, and also received cash bonuses, grants, stock options and income. The list has proved not so many representatives of IT-industry, but still we can draw up a picture of the earnings corporate executives-leaders.

A total of TOP-100 most highly paid top managers of the world hit eight I-T business. This is lower than in 2006, when only the first among a dozen leaders were immediately aytishnika four. Lead the list of the most financially secured I T-managers for 2007 CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation. He earned $ 192.9 million Closed first ten Paul Otellini of Intel with $ 16.3 million Strangely enough, but only 36 - Revenues for first place among I-T and 434 bosses - the first place "in the general set-off" won the founder and head of the company Michael Dell Dell. In doing so, as the drafters of the note rating, Della personal status, which is estimated at $ 16 billion, allows him to stay among the four richest people in the world. However, most interpretations and peresudov in the press after the publication of Forbes ranking person aroused general director of Apple Steve Jobs, who in 2007 earned $ 14.6 million This has been in 44 times less than a year earlier ($ 646 million). As a result Jobs "fell" from the first line in the list of the most highly paid top managers to release immediately to the Forbes 120 - yu.

Revenue for the previous chapters Apple, 2006 - the third one year in many ways provided stock options. But do not forget that at the time Jobs was implicated in a loud scandal. American authorities suspected the leadership "of apple" in financial fraud related to the change of dates of options retroactively. According to the Securities Commission and U.S. stock exchanges (SEC), it has allowed them to extract greater profit recipients. The internal investigation conducted by a specially established commission Apple, showed that the change of dates was indeed, but by Steve Dzhobsa violation of the law is not established. Well, proven or not - is how to view. During a government investigation found that the breach allowed a former Apple CFO Fred Anderson, who was obliged to return $ 3.5 million Rightly or wrongly, the founder of Apple's revenue fell by dozens of times. This did not allow him to take place even in the ten most highly paid managers IT - Jobs eventually located at 11 - place, despite the fact that his company remains one of the most effective in terms of return on investment. At least, such a comment analysts gave CNN.

The most highly paid executives IT

Place Company Manager Revenue Manager in 2007 ($ Millions)
1. Larry Ellison Oracle 192,9
2. Nebib Geril MEMC Electronic Materials 79,6
3. John Chambers Cisco 54,8
4. Mark Herd HP 27,6
5. Huang Yen-Sun Nvidia 24,6
6. Samuel Palmizano IBM 24,3
7. Vendell Weeks Corning 22,6
8. Joseph Tuchchi EMC 20
9. William Sullivan Agilent 17,4
10. Paul Otellini Intel 16,3
11. C Dzhobs against Apple 14,6
12. Jonathan Schwartz Sun 13,5


As we have seen, despite the rapid growth of computer and telecommunications industry, their top managers can not compete on an equal footing with the "big boss" of the other, "old", industries - financial and banking, automotive, mining, oil and so e. This, of course, looks a bit ridiculous against the background of a situation where, for example, only a social network Facebook is worth as much as automobile group General Motors and Ford combined. On the other hand, such modesty (relative, of course), which demonstrate the top managers of IT-industry, is unwittingly respected by investors. Especially among venture investors, who invest their money in high IT-projects, to look at the personalities of those they lead. And "information" its top managers will still be assured.

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Again AMD against Intel

The second-largest worldwide manufacturer of microprocessors Advanced Micro Devices has expanded the list of claims against the market leader - the corporation Intel. In 2005, the company AMD has accused Intel of monopolizing the market. Then these accusations followed a long trial in the United States. And not so long ago by Intel with the filing of AMD is very interested European antitrust office. The consequence of a number of searches in both the European offices of Intel, and its business partners.

New charges AMD, set out on pages 2000, suggest that Intel bribe and puts pressure on manufacturers of personal computers, to prevent their cooperation with AMD. The latest statement appeared AMD U.S. companies Dell, IBM, Hewlett-Packard and Gateway, as well as Taiwanese Acer, the Chinese Lenovo Group (in 2005 bought a unit for the production of IBM PC) and several lesser-known Japanese manufacturers. Some of them appear in the first. According to AMD lawyer Charles Diamond, "Intel pays all of them for something that they did not cooperate with AMD". Actually, this kind of accusation put forward against Intel by AMD already far not the first time.

Intel, in turn, told journalists that considers the competitive environment in the market for PC chips normal. AMD also, in its view, looking for protection from the courts legitimate way of competition. Claims AMD, believe in Intel, "in fact, are complaining that Intel - a more effective competitor". Indeed, by the end of 2007, the company AMD has suffered great losses, while Intel can boast a large profit. One of the key issues during consideration of the case - how much time would be given to AMD interrogation of witnesses and others to find. Guide AMD contends that the company's lawyers will need another 9-10 months to gain the support of a sufficient number of witnesses. In Intel also believe that AMD and here requires unnecessary. Overall, I think, epic "AMD against Intel" will be equally protracted, as "European Commission against Microsoft" (which, by the way, still very far from completion).

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Thursday, June 19, 2008

IT SECTOR: growth on all fronts

Home adopt recent weeks: talk about the crisis faced by the global IT-industry, finally subsided. Now no one believes that the financial storm recession and the American economy will affect the IT-sector. Moreover, it is the traditional summer lull. IT-company profits count and distribute investment received.

Relations between Yahoo and Microsoft corporations from the thriller genre smoothly peretekli in the Brazilian series. At a recent conference D: All Things Digital гендиректор Yahoo Jerry Yang said his company "continues to discuss possible partnerships with Microsoft agreement." Then, at a press conference Yang confirmed the holding of talks between Yahoo and Microsoft on possible cooperation. While it drew particular attention to that now talking about buying portal Yahoo by Microsoft is not. In passing the head Yahoo has missed no opportunity to pin up software giant, stressing that "Microsoft withdrew a proposal to purchase Yahoo, while the leadership of Internet companies were not fundamentally against this deal - not only arranged price."

In general, talks between Microsoft and Yahoo promise to take a long time. This is not surprising: we are talking about one of the largest transactions in the history of IT-business.

Russian Internet companies included in vogue among foreign investors. Offshore developer DataArt, creator of the mail engine Mail.ru, with developing centers in Russia and Ukraine, has received $ 4 million investment and plans to obtain another $ 2 million in the near future. The guide told us that the investments required to maintain high growth business. Thus, the president of DataArt Eugene Goland said: "At the speed of our development affect the natural financial restrictions." And in the words of executive director Mikhail DataArt Zavileyskogo growth business accounted for about 30% a year, and in 2007 - he grew up as soon m by 70%. According to the forecasts of the company, its growth this year will amount not less than 50%.

According to the same experts, such a large amount of investment suggests that DataArt sells large blocks of their shares - of blocking to control. In DataArt information on the sale of shares of stock confirm, but did not specify how much of the inherited investors. DataArt was the main investor in London Fund Tower Gate Capital, known in the investment sector technology companies. By draft also become one of Russia's investfondov New York and Third Millennium Russia Fund. By the way, the last before already invested in portal Mail.ru.

Obtained from investors funds will be spent on the development of systems marketing, opening new centres of development, as well as education and training specialists. Investments are considered long-term, and concrete plans for their return from DataArt not.

At the mobile telephony market - low price war. The company LG Electronics said that it would be forced to reduce prices on their mobiles, if the same will make Nokia. And Nokia is ready "to start fighting": the price of several Nokia models in the near future may fall by 20%. This, in particular, will allow Finns take away market share from Motorola.

Company Dell - second in size PC manufacturer in the world - issued a stack of news. First, Dell told analysts that in the near future sales outside the U.S. company will increase significantly in five years and will make up 2 / 3 total revenue. Thus, for I quarter of this year in group BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) sales grew by 73%. For the first time international sales surpassed the number of Dell PCs sold in the United States - largely due to the low dollar.

In addition, Dell published a report on performance in I quarter of 2009 fiscal year (ended May 2). Dell Revenue from February to April inclusive, was $ 16.08 billion, a 9% higher than that of last fiscal year. Net profit reached $ 784 million - 38 cents per share. These results are markedly exceeded expectations of analysts.

The current growth in revenue and profits in Dell explain good demand: for example, sales of Dell laptops for the year grew by 43%, which is largely connected with the refusal of consumer desktops in favor of portable PCs. Meanwhile, Dell staff for the year declined by 7000 people, though, along with the purchase of other firms have moved in 2700 Dell employees.

And finally: New York court found Dell guilty of fraud, deception of consumers, with violations of debt collection and use of advertising, misleading. Customers company, filed a lawsuit against it, were dissatisfied with the quality of support services, and also claimed that Dell, offering free loans to their equipment, not always fulfilled promises.

The market components yet very few events happening. For example, Seagate CEO Bill Watkins said that his company in 2009 will issue its first SSD-drives and dvuhterabaytnye HDD. First SSD-Seagate drives will be geared to corporate users: the price of such devices is still too high for the mass consumer. According to Watkins, when the price of one at SSD-GB drive will be 10 cents, Seagate and then enters the consumer market. Meanwhile, now on the U.S. market 128 - SSD-gigabyte drive costs $ 460, equivalent to $ 3.58 per GB. For comparison: retail price of 160 GB hard drive is $ 60.

In addition, Bill Watkins told journalists that in 2009 produced by now Terabyte HDD Seagate Barracuda 7200.11 and Barracuda ES.2 added dvuhterabaytny hard drive. However, the approximate date of his appearance on the market, as well as price executive director of Seagate has not yet been named.

And finally - on the company computer games. As the study conducted by Nielsen Games, the European market for PC games and consoles became the second largest in the world market and second only to Asia. The study was called Videogamers in Europe-2008; participated in the 6000 active gamers aged from 16 to 49 years from 15 European nations.

At the end of 2007 the proceeds from sales of computer games in the EU countries amounted to 7.3 billion euros ($ 11.4 billion). Asia, by the way, just slightly ahead of Europe: there players spent 7.4 billion euros ($ 11.5 billion). Third place were Americans spend on virtual entertainment $ 10.7 billion.

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Thursday, June 5, 2008

Energy future of the planet

Now modern scientists had a number of non-trivial tasks, from which depends very much. On the one hand, this problem does not use renewable resources, which may soon end, such as oil, coal or natural gas, and with another - the security of the same rights and environmental conditions on the planet. "The peace" atom already gave us a dozen Hirosim literally in the middle of Europe, and its use now does not look so tempting, as before. As for other environmental aspects, over the past hundred years the nature of the adverse effects suffered so much by humans, but it was not practicable for all our shared history.

Actually, the problem more global than it seems at first glance. We need to significantly reduce pollution from fossil fuels to be convenient to live next generations. Therefore, scientists now are up to four key components: the sun, air, water, land. And what are working now, soon may well change the economic map of the world. For example ...


Gas hydrates

At this point extensively discussed the use of so-called gas hydrates (frozen methane associated with water). Initially, his huge deposits found in space, for example, on Jupiter. But then it turned out that the Earth's ocean space also possess large quantities of the substance. And not just great. According to calculations carried out, we have on the planet stocks was higher than coal, oil and gas combined. However, until very know-how is being ideological work, and the industrial exploration of deposits it is not yet under way.

And in this case we are talking about non renewable resources, since he constantly made on the ocean depths.


Biofuel

Biofuels - is a renewable resource, it is true, it may well consumption and man, and overproduction in the field ever not:). All the matter is that biofuels - a replacement for diesel, but created from biological components: oil and alcohol. This area several years ago predicted a very large development, although at one time, all stalled, so the very idea of leaving ... for the future.


Sun

Solar energy as an alternative source of electricity has already seen a very long time. But while it remains one of the most expensive alternatives due to low efficiency of transformation and expensive production of components. In addition, there is a direct correlation from the Sun - it is needed and the region plus the appropriate decision about what to do at night, and so on.

Although not so long ago in the field of micro and nanotechnology have begun to develop small power plants, consisting of a huge number of micro / nano antennok. All the beauty of these decisions is that they capture electromagnetic waves in the infrared spectrum. Elaboration ideas involved researchers from the Idaho National Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from the American company MicroContinuum and the University of Missouri. In principle, and the name "mikroelektrostantsii" could not have better suited. Needless infrared radiation is available and at night from the hot surfaces during the day. What is interesting this development? Scientists say the very high efficiency and low cost to obtain converters. That is, we can already speak of the birth of a new direction. Who knows, maybe it is these mikroelektrostantsii soon become the major building blocks of large buildings. Although novoizobretennoy technology has several problems - namely, straightening current with very high frequency and to explore the impact mikroantenn standing beside each other. In fact, both be resolved, needs only time to refine quality.

With the advent of solar power plants with high efficiency and low cost is already possible to solve several problems.


Sun plus air

This is a very interesting Australian project, which is, first, perfectly suited for Australia itself, with its dry non-residential spaces, and secondly, it is enough just to build ... nothing more dokupat not need it.

And that is the essence. Everyone knows that hot air rises. Scientists have offered to do a huge dome-greenhouses diameter, with built in such a way that the sun heat the air devat'sja nowhere, except to the central leaking pipe, which formed a very powerful flow of rotating turbines. One might say, live physics in action. And, no hazardous waste, nor even the use of any non-renewable resources. So far, no real implementation, but it is known that the Australian Government spends money on it. If the idea goes, the problem of environmental electricity in the deserts almost solved.


Hydrogen

That's about. By the way, the future of hydrogen fuel for cars even Jules Verne predicted in a work "Paris XX century." And this "predictors", as history shows, seldom mistaken.

But today we do not talk about cars, and on the draft Torus (Joint European Centre for Nuclear Sinteza). What they are doing, try to explain in simple terms, yes nuclear forgive us. As it stands hydrogen fuel, which is warming up to the temperature of 150 million degrees Celsius, turning into plasma, which atoms merge and face, and when positive ions overcome their natural repulsion force, provided energy. This method is a million times more effective than modern nuclear power plants to radioactive uranium and plutonium. And here we are talking about hydrogen, which is little that is safe, and there is still so in huge quantities on Earth.

While the draft is at the stage of testing, and the practical implementation will be able to see our children.


Pezoeffekt

This area has been studied little, but it gives a lot of prospects subsequently exclusively for nanourovnya. The very idea of converting mechanical vibrations into electrical current is known almost any of our contemporaries, from the examples of those same players in head zvukosnimateley Cassette and modern zvukosnimateley for musical instruments. But this case is not limited. For example, in recent years, several laboratories that have decided to tackle difficult nutrition nanorobotov used in medicine (those who must clean the walls of vessels and regulate pressure), chose pezoeffekte. That is, an example of ideas: a battery will provide current, if it will be projected ultrasonic radiation. That is, in any case requires mechanical external agent.

What's interesting, already have attempted to withdraw all-assumptions and on the macro level, a problem - you need to find a permanent source of such natural vibrations. And generally, the very idea of the macro level for pezoeffekta looks very unlikely.


In conclusion

Perhaps the use of wind energy - among the most common alternative option. As an example is the already large number of modern buildings, the architects who made it possible to "nutrition" of wind power plants, built directly into the facility. This great future directions.

In wind energy drew great attention to the same Europe, and, for example, now there already are few places where there is constant wind and not stand windmills. And the same Holland has a strong wind power, located 16 kilometres from the coast in the North Sea. Though somewhat geographically they are lucky (meaning the risk of flooding).

The active development are now seen in the use of geothermal sources. But this, again, those who are "lucky". Who has over the river with great use during this as a source. For example, there is an ambitious plan for alternative energy Manhattan (District of New York). The energy begins to sea waves used.

In general, in each case requires an individual approach, sometimes requiring a hybrid supplies. A combined humanity begins to turn in the right way. After all, saying "After I got at least not grow grass" in some cases has been literally true. Indeed, somewhere grass is not growing.

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Tuesday, June 3, 2008

Dell intends to return to world leadership

Michael Dell, founder of the corporation Dell, is confident that his company can reclaim leadership in personal computer sales, paying more attention to a specific user and developing countries. Dell founded the company while still a student at the college, and for the post of its director general returned last year when Dell had ceded first place in the list of the world's computer giants corporations Hewlett Packard (HP). His new strategy, according to Della already brings tangible results. Thus, sales at the end of last year grew by 19%, while the year began with a 11% drop.

Profit corporation and the reputation of Dell gained on the original approach to sales, not through the exercise of their stores, and via the Internet or by telephone, which gave the consumer an opportunity not just to buy that gathered at the plant, and build your own computer, based on their own inquiries and opportunities . And now, according to Della, this model is the process of "fine tuning". If nine months ago, the user wanted to buy a Dell computer in the store, he would have to look long and inconclusive. And now the company own more than 10 thousand stores.

The slowdown in the American economy, according to Della, has had some impact on the market: people were put off buying some for later. But, he added, the majority of clients, which is now targeting Dell, does not live in the United States: the company wants to create new products and services that will attract new users in India, the Middle East and China. In doing so, Michael Dell is not expressed much enthusiasm when asked whether he intends to do something like this so-called "Laptops for $ 100" as part of the "One laptop per child" for developing countries. According to him, this product, which was first talked four years ago, but so far no one has made stodollarovy laptops.

Dell more practical look at things and doing what people can use products that have a price to be sold and actually functional. In addition, Dell has rejected the suggestion that his company to design computer nevazhen, though agreed that this element was not among the main priorities when Dell focused on corporate clients. By switching to consumers, Dell has become much more drew attention to design, fashion, color, texture and materials. 10 years ago, Steve Jobs, head of Apple, Dell criticized for production, as he put, "beige boxes". This same range of their computers Michael Dell describes this way: "We do them in any color. In any color you want you."

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