Thursday, June 26, 2008

Popular on Artificial Intelligence

Of course, originally planned art-workshop on creating autonomous robots. Your humble servant even made a structural outline of such material, but… after I understood that without basic knowledge in the field of artificial intelligence would be difficult for the reader to understand something - or rather, completely penetrate the meaning. Therefore, in a few rooms, we will consider this topic, which is valid not only for robots, but for most modern software.

Artificial intelligence (AI) as a separate area of science has just recently, almost simultaneously with many other current major disciplines - such as cybernetics, neural networks, other branches of basic: medicine, psychology, economics. Meanwhile, most of those who first confronted with this notion, it might seem that artificial intelligence - is an attempt to fully replace the human brain machine. Maybe because it originally anticipated. But, for example, in one of the mistakes than Leonardo da Vinci (if it can be considered a mistake)? He, like many inventors, his predecessors, it is anticipated that flight is possible on condition the establishment apparatus simulator poultry. While actually not a very successful example, because in the modern aviation, we see a clear link with the biological world - underwater. But in a number of books on this particular AI set an example for illustration as a comparison:). We will take another example that you can see on the streets - cars. No biological form on Earth does not have such a mechanism of movement. In doing so, cars and trains are the kinds of high-speed ground transportation. If not invent them, a mock humanoid or other species that we can see examples of fantastic "steam" of people and horses at the end of the XIX century, the optimal such decisions would be minimal. The third example… you dotronulis to obzhigayusche hot FBR. After reading some scientific works, it can be concluded that in this case, you start to analyze the situation in the brain to compute the most optimal solution, perebiraya it from the many options as possible or not. But what makes people? Just otdergivaet hand, not even thinking about their actions. Refleks.


The creation of artificial intelligence - is primarily a difficult task, if possible at best shared some simple. In today's presentation of this science are more to use the notion of agents who transform their own perception of their own actions. To this can be attributed boldly and any computer program, and the robot at work. But the recurrence of Rights no concrete action. Among other definitions AI can be found more comprehensive - for example, "Automation of reasonable conduct". Not long ago, namely in about 2003 - year, was published a table comparing the number of neurons of the human brain to the number of transistors in today's PCs. And Moore's law has been applied, under which the number of transistors in the calculation of per unit area increases exactly twice for the period 1,5-2 years. And it applies even more to statistical studies, because this trend has occurred over the past 25 years, if not more. This table published virtually all media, in one way or another connected with high-tech, because finding was remarkable: the number VMRabolu by 2020. But whether this means? ..

In fact, our brains can not be compared with one computer - a whole structured and interconnected network. And in 80 - or 90 x - x could create something similar - for example, one computer is responsible for vision and image analysis, the second - for the hearing and speech recognition, the third - for tactile sensations, the fourth - for chemical analysis, the fifth - for a decisions, etc. This is possible? Of course! But… no algorithms! Just no! Not invented… I do not really transistors in the case. What we offer mathematics, very difficult, in principle, moreover, is different from the natural perception. For example, our auditory system does not use Fourier transformation for the expansion complex sound waves on some simple. It simply does not know and apply the methods of other more universal - for each frequency has a special receptor. Vision works on similar principles, but with its specifics. By the way, to its biological essence of modern technology and scientists are closest. But, returning to the same ears, it is worth noting optimal modern solutions, because the Fourier transform plus computer is much easier creation of a full model of human hearing. Therefore, science II only in private implies repetition rights, and actually more close to programming agents or the same "automation of reasonable conduct". But, on the one hand, mathematically can be done very much. And since we remembered about Fourier, then Jean-Baptiste and surprisingly suited to further narration. Very vivid example of history, when the French scientist tried to decrypt hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt (with Napoleon he was governor of Nizhny Egypt). It must be said that Fourier, addressing this challenge, spears broke and said that linguistics beyond mathematical analysis. He turned and rights, and no rights at the same time. Do not edit because the Egyptian language alphabet issued his disciple, and rights for the reason which has been widely discussed theorists and practice of artificial intelligence and subsequently with what we face now.

Turing Test

Alan Turing was one of the founders of artificial intelligence as a scientific discipline, or rather, not even discipline, and a scientific direction. In principle, it is their studies and work more reminiscent of fiction-practice. That is a very creative person, plus a good scientific basis. Incidentally, under his leadership in 1940 was the first operational computer Heath Robinson (named after the cartoonist). This was electromechanical device that was intended to decrypt messages transmitted Germans. In 1943 - m the same team of scientists created a more powerful computer Colossus, which already used electronic lamps, a range of appointments has become more broad. Also known Tyuring that wrote one of the first algorithms for playing chess and wanted him to realize at the same Colossus, but he is not authorized the British Government. Therefore, instead of machines for the algorithms worked himself on the progress of computation spent on the half hour, and the technology subsequently became known as "paper Turing machine". On the scientist says a lot, so if you choose to refer to specialist literature and we will continue to talk about AI.

So why was pronounced the word "fiction"? The point is that it was a scientific romanticism. Just as Isaac Ayzimov withdrawn rules for robots, robots themselves when, in fact, has not been as such. Similarly, the Turing assumed, as can behave computer in the future, but as can not. Naturally, he tried to equate it to humans, so originally envisaged the possibility of communicating with computers at the usual language, the availability of computer memory (the ability to store machine), automatic formation of logical conclusions and ability to learn. In doing so, he felt the same machine could not (give the full list): "be good, generous, beautiful, friendly, proactive, have a sense of humour, to distinguish truth from falsehood, to commit mistakes, love, to enjoy strawberries and ice cream, make falls in love with themselves , To learn, to use words correctly, be subject to their own thoughts, to show the same diversity in behavior, like people really create anything new ". Yet Turing assumed that the machine will be able to act intellectually, under the implied rather than no ability to think, as an intellectual presence of conduct. He published an article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence", where the proposed test, which later became widely known as "Turing test". The essence of it is that after the five-person communication and programs within the traffic in the first 30% was unable to determine who was with him in touch: a living person or a computer. Alan Turing even predicted that computers will pass this test in 2000. In principle, as you understand, all very, very conditional. For example, several years ago, your humble servant was a living witness to how people communicated with voice mail on your mobile phone, informing the balance in the account. So he called the amount and character made this key phrase: "It is my understanding, but I am hour ago introduced a new amount! When they are listed? "More seriously, much depends on the issues, the level of perception and the conversation situation. Therefore Turing test himself with many now associated with the same laws for robots Ayzimova. They have, but it is not the basic rules. In other words, a scientific show-business.

The Chinese room

It is known mental experiment. In fact, what then occupied the minds of scientists, now it is obvious to any PC user. But to keep ahead of the future had to use imagination, "the paper machines". So John and Sirl suggested purely mental experiment. Imagine a person in a closed room. He understands only English. On the table lay a pile of papers, some of which are empty and the other documents filled with incomprehensible records in Chinese. There is also a reference book-manual in English, which may help in decoding. And now, through a special opening in the room are reported in Chinese with some guides to action - for example, make a new record, document or find a particular character or move the pile from one place to another. Accordingly, the man himself - this processor, a pile of paper - memory book - the program. This is inside. And apparently it looks like sending queries / commands and receiving
answers / results at the Chinese. And if you ask the system itself, whether it knows the Chinese, you get an affirmative answer. The system could even Turing test. But if you ask the same question Englishman or a book - a negative. Thus, we come to a basic problem II, namely the identity and understanding. Sirl then withdrew several laws, axioms that the programmes are the essence of syntax, but wisdom in its full presentation implies semantics or mental content (understanding the meaning of the word). One syntax for semantics is not enough. Incidentally, for the moment questions of semantics remain unsolved, although many can be seen fairly good intermediate realizations, how would precede, but…

Bridge completion

Let us now think: Why did Fourier has rights in his remark? In fact, he meant primarily semantics. The same deciphered ancient languages in the main largely due to the fact that there were analogues in the other known records. Incidentally, there are an outstanding example of the Second World. Americans to ensure that their messages could not decrypt Japanese specialists, attracted representatives… a small Indian tribe, which has its own language. And all of us, respectively, were on it. The Japanese were unable to do anything in this situation. And let us think: Does a need semantics machines, actually? Your humble servant saw many modern algorithms, there is little that some of them worked and actively participated in projects to create them, but almost all of them, in fact, for machines are "Chinese Room". This is where the abstract. In fact, automated semantic search, the appropriate "understanding" computer or robot realizable. And the principles of such algorithms is understandable to our contemporaries, with a friend obektnoorientirovannym programming, high-level languages, yes… even with the notion of classes.

To be continued ...

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Something about earnings of top managers in IT

Forbes Magazine published its regular list of the most highly paid top managers. The methodology of this ranking takes into account official salaries leader, and also received cash bonuses, grants, stock options and income. The list has proved not so many representatives of IT-industry, but still we can draw up a picture of the earnings corporate executives-leaders.

A total of TOP-100 most highly paid top managers of the world hit eight I-T business. This is lower than in 2006, when only the first among a dozen leaders were immediately aytishnika four. Lead the list of the most financially secured I T-managers for 2007 CEO Larry Ellison of Oracle Corporation. He earned $ 192.9 million Closed first ten Paul Otellini of Intel with $ 16.3 million Strangely enough, but only 36 - Revenues for first place among I-T and 434 bosses - the first place "in the general set-off" won the founder and head of the company Michael Dell Dell. In doing so, as the drafters of the note rating, Della personal status, which is estimated at $ 16 billion, allows him to stay among the four richest people in the world. However, most interpretations and peresudov in the press after the publication of Forbes ranking person aroused general director of Apple Steve Jobs, who in 2007 earned $ 14.6 million This has been in 44 times less than a year earlier ($ 646 million). As a result Jobs "fell" from the first line in the list of the most highly paid top managers to release immediately to the Forbes 120 - yu.

Revenue for the previous chapters Apple, 2006 - the third one year in many ways provided stock options. But do not forget that at the time Jobs was implicated in a loud scandal. American authorities suspected the leadership "of apple" in financial fraud related to the change of dates of options retroactively. According to the Securities Commission and U.S. stock exchanges (SEC), it has allowed them to extract greater profit recipients. The internal investigation conducted by a specially established commission Apple, showed that the change of dates was indeed, but by Steve Dzhobsa violation of the law is not established. Well, proven or not - is how to view. During a government investigation found that the breach allowed a former Apple CFO Fred Anderson, who was obliged to return $ 3.5 million Rightly or wrongly, the founder of Apple's revenue fell by dozens of times. This did not allow him to take place even in the ten most highly paid managers IT - Jobs eventually located at 11 - place, despite the fact that his company remains one of the most effective in terms of return on investment. At least, such a comment analysts gave CNN.

The most highly paid executives IT

Place Company Manager Revenue Manager in 2007 ($ Millions)
1. Larry Ellison Oracle 192,9
2. Nebib Geril MEMC Electronic Materials 79,6
3. John Chambers Cisco 54,8
4. Mark Herd HP 27,6
5. Huang Yen-Sun Nvidia 24,6
6. Samuel Palmizano IBM 24,3
7. Vendell Weeks Corning 22,6
8. Joseph Tuchchi EMC 20
9. William Sullivan Agilent 17,4
10. Paul Otellini Intel 16,3
11. C Dzhobs against Apple 14,6
12. Jonathan Schwartz Sun 13,5

As we have seen, despite the rapid growth of computer and telecommunications industry, their top managers can not compete on an equal footing with the "big boss" of the other, "old", industries - financial and banking, automotive, mining, oil and so e. This, of course, looks a bit ridiculous against the background of a situation where, for example, only a social network Facebook is worth as much as automobile group General Motors and Ford combined. On the other hand, such modesty (relative, of course), which demonstrate the top managers of IT-industry, is unwittingly respected by investors. Especially among venture investors, who invest their money in high IT-projects, to look at the personalities of those they lead. And "information" its top managers will still be assured.

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Again AMD against Intel

The second-largest worldwide manufacturer of microprocessors Advanced Micro Devices has expanded the list of claims against the market leader - the corporation Intel. In 2005, the company AMD has accused Intel of monopolizing the market. Then these accusations followed a long trial in the United States. And not so long ago by Intel with the filing of AMD is very interested European antitrust office. The consequence of a number of searches in both the European offices of Intel, and its business partners.

New charges AMD, set out on pages 2000, suggest that Intel bribe and puts pressure on manufacturers of personal computers, to prevent their cooperation with AMD. The latest statement appeared AMD U.S. companies Dell, IBM, Hewlett-Packard and Gateway, as well as Taiwanese Acer, the Chinese Lenovo Group (in 2005 bought a unit for the production of IBM PC) and several lesser-known Japanese manufacturers. Some of them appear in the first. According to AMD lawyer Charles Diamond, "Intel pays all of them for something that they did not cooperate with AMD". Actually, this kind of accusation put forward against Intel by AMD already far not the first time.

Intel, in turn, told journalists that considers the competitive environment in the market for PC chips normal. AMD also, in its view, looking for protection from the courts legitimate way of competition. Claims AMD, believe in Intel, "in fact, are complaining that Intel - a more effective competitor". Indeed, by the end of 2007, the company AMD has suffered great losses, while Intel can boast a large profit. One of the key issues during consideration of the case - how much time would be given to AMD interrogation of witnesses and others to find. Guide AMD contends that the company's lawyers will need another 9-10 months to gain the support of a sufficient number of witnesses. In Intel also believe that AMD and here requires unnecessary. Overall, I think, epic "AMD against Intel" will be equally protracted, as "European Commission against Microsoft" (which, by the way, still very far from completion).

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