Friday, July 25, 2008

Popular on AI

Environment us nature, society, the universe - it is chaos or did something orderly? Can you describe or explain all the key number of formulas and algorithms? In fact, there is no necessary in qualitative assessment, which need to get rid of uncertainty. The very same uncertainty arises in the absence of the necessary number of data and relationships? If you are an experienced player in the chess situation on the board looks quite deterministic, that is predictable, because while he appreciates the many chess indicators, it all looks for Beginners uncertain. Even more, some of the indicators that you want to evaluate, and not even he suspects. But there is another side issue. For its turn to discuss literary classics, namely, the product of MA Bulgakov "Master and Margarita". The situation with Berlioz and Annushkoy, which shed oil. At the terminology AI in terms of higher forces both characters on the law can be regarded as agents who do not even know about the existence of each other, the more the relationship…

Yes, in fact, speaking of artificial intelligence, it is difficult to keep from having to go to the level of philosophical narration with a fantastic mystical classes. Although… Our readers love fiction, so let's look at an interesting example. Moreover, it is of direct relevance to practice.


During the period from 1961 to 1967 was published very popular fantastic saga of the three novels "Reason", "Foundation and Empire", "second base". Their author is practically our compatriot (he was born under the Smolensk) Isaac Azimov. The whole story begins with the fact that during the existence of a powerful empire appeared science such as psihoistoriya. Quoting that under this understood: "a branch of mathematics which deals with the reactions of human societies on a stable social and economic incentives… using precise mathematical data can be a certain way to influence human society". So, by using complex mathematical formulas that take into account the large amount of data, expressed in a number of factors, one of the scientists accurately predicted the fall of empires time as such - exactly five years.

And now is to think: Does it really? That is offensive to predict any developments in time. In principle, it is even possible. For example, in calculating the ideal model of development for something, and then begin to enter data with coefficients of influence. In principle, everything is overdone, although people familiar with games in the genre of economic policies, particularly the level of Pharao, Caesar, CivCity: Rome, Capitalism, etc., clearly understands what is at stake. For others cite another example, a medical. What can be predicted probability of occurrence of a disease and even predict the approximate time of the attack, if there was no question about infections? To do so, must obtain the largest possible number of necessary input data, which are produced as a result of analysis and research, plus take into account the aging of the organism, seasonal aggravation (for example, gipertoniki suffer in the heat), heredity, abuse, ways of life. As a result, real prediction. And the results can be and in reverse. What, indeed, modern medicine and works. If everything translated into mathematical language, then many of us around processes and events have inertia, so you can make some projections, using extrapolation, that is, if we are talking about a temporary stage, it is the spread of previously identified trends with respect to future periods . After all, often facing our ordinary person with statistical projections. In doing so, you need to take into account many different factors, sometimes in direct contradiction. For example, the growth of the working population is linked to improving the quality of life, that is good food, medicine, etc. But while in developed countries, fertility is low. And so on. There are such well-known subjects as management theory and statistics, which developed in the framework of their experience and achievements, in turn, transferred artificial intelligence systems at the expert level. And all this can be attributed to other quite different areas. And on the shoulders AI might well be tasked to ensure the viability of the same rights.

The usefulness and reward

The main task of agents decision-making often is to find the best option from a variety of alternatives. Let us turn to the same chess, which we have written quite a lot of material in the past, and let us assume that each of the figures has its price - for example, a pawn - 1, horse and elephant - 3, rook - 5, queen - 9, King - 1000 . In fact, the program works for reward, as if asking: "What do I get for it?" That is developers realized bonus system, expressed in so-called utility function - the term used in AI. There need to understand that this is not what an agent can bring benefit to their actions or state of choice for others. He - rational egoist - in fact, none other than himself, does not see and always wondered what benefit this or that decision could bring him the most. In the biological nature all very similar. For example, in the human brain has a pleasure center, and so on. Thus, a motivation to find the most rational result. Why have we turned to chess? There, as the agents AI, the actions are in the mode of uncertainty. In fact, expected to feature a chess program and the utility function with agents identical. Arriving at the instance, branches, including the taking, the program expects options for the largest possible number of points. And this is the most primitive and trivial form. Recall that Deep Blue six monitors thousands of chess-specific indicators. If this computer algorithms in the evaluation function only take into account takeover, the computer would never have been able to win rights.

The interim phase

Before turning to the specific tasks and presentation of practical bases, I suggest you independently perform a number of assignments. Basically this answers to the questions:

. Try to independently withdraw several definitions of artificial intelligence.
. What agents or their community can be interconnected assigned to the intelligence systems?
. Try to imagine the situation reversed with Turing test, namely: how and on what grounds the computer can "understand", that people are communicating with him?
. Can I take it that artificial intelligence above human if he had received the highest score in tests of IQ?
. Can I take the affirmative by the fact that semantics (a full understanding of the meaning of the words and phenomena) in humans is directly related to identity, that is, comes from a personal "I"?
. And whether it is possible to create such a framework II, focusing only on the utility function and implement a system of rewards?
. Imagine what kind of object AI is on a random cell chessboard. Think algorithm, which he will be able to quickly find the coordinates of his location, that is to specify cell.
. Children's play "rock, scissors, paper" refers to a deterministic or nondeterministic type?
. In the popular game Starcraft professionals identify three key strategies of development armies, one of which provides a quick victory in the initial stage of the game, but almost always lose later, the second - on the contrary, and so on. Can I hold in this case a parallel with "rock, scissors, paper" in the strategic sense?
. Society Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is the developer of architecture JAUS (Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems), implying a single management protocol Unmanned robotics. That is thanks to him, you can manage robotankami, robosamoletami, robosoldatami, roborazvedchikami, autonomous vehicles, using a unified command system. What requirements must present to develop AI to completely transfer the administration on its basis?
. Among the many different and not very plausible theories can be found and such: the main inhabitants of our planet - a bacterium, and all life is a container for them. Oprovergnite and prove this theory in terms of the vision of community of bacteria as intellectual substance. And whether the submission in principle?

IT SECTOR: a word on Yahoo!

In this issue, the business review, there will be no words about the cheerful "games" corporations Yahoo, Microsoft and primknuvshey to Google. First, wait shareholders Yahoo, in which billionaire and one of the owners of shares of Internet companies try to shift the Ikan Karl-occupied with post KazUpack Yahoo Jerry Yang and his companions - that is, all those who opposed the deal with Microsoft. Hiccup already formed a list of ten people, which will replace the current members of the Board of Directors of Yahoo. Secondly, look in all that is happening now in the triangular Yahoo-Microsoft-Google, not breaking the brain, it is simply impossible. In general, wait continuing show. In the meantime, I will tell about other interesting things.

Regulatory authorities in different countries with Gambling tormented corporation Intel. So, start their own antitrust investigation into the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. American antitrust agency suspects in the non-Intel business practices. It is expected that several major computer manufacturers companies provide good discounts if they refused to use AMD processors and get to work only with the chip Intel. Note that Intel not the first time accused of uncompetitive business practices. Earlier, European Commission recognized the Intel guilty of violating the antimonopoly law. A similar conclusion came and representatives of the Japanese Anti-Monopoly Office. More recently has been the Korean Fair Trade Commission concluded that Intel had violated national competition law. Discounts in the sale of microprocessors two Korean companies - Samsung Electronics and Trigem Computer - would cost Intel $ 25.4 million in fines. The initiator of the investigation became an American Intel competitor Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). In June 2005 - she complained of the authorities of several countries. In 2005, AMD also filed a private lawsuit against the competition Intel, in which hearings are scheduled for next year. Leading Intel adviser Bruce Sewell said that the company with a high probability filed the appeal on the decision of the Korean commission. Quote: "The principle which they attack, is at the heart of competition - the offer of discounts to increase sales. The appeal will help to start from scratch the case of discounts during the hearings in the Korean court". Sewell said that at meetings of the commission Intel representatives did not allow the court to call its own witnesses and present evidence. For reference: At the end of 2007, Intel accounted for 76.7% of all processors sold in the world, AMD - 23,1%.

A State Department of Intellectual Property of China (SITO) has begun an investigation into the corporation Microsoft, which the authorities accuse China of violating the antimonopoly law. As part of the investigation will be reviewed operating systems and other products produced not only Microsoft, but also other major companies involved in developing software. In particular, one of the tasks of the investigation - Clarification of reasons, most of which American software sold in China more expensive than in the United States. According to officials, the largest company enjoyed its dominant position in the software market and prohibitive prices overstate. At the same time these same companies have accused China of violating copyrights and high-level piracy. Licensing version of Microsoft Windows operating system in conjunction with MS Office in China can be purchased over 7 thousand yuan ($ 1,015). That is, these two products worth more expensive than the average PC. Antimonopoly Law was adopted in China in 2007 and will enter into force on 1 August 2008 - go. Under his act fell pricing mechanisms to several types of goods. However, one of the most important of his party authorities believe China's control over the absorption of Chinese companies by foreign companies. Also this document gives Chinese antimonopolschikam right to examine the transaction, in which companies investing in the country's economy.

The company Sony announced that the popular YouTube online videosluzhba entered into a cooperation agreement with a service Bravia Internet Video Link. Thanks to this contract Bravia users of the service will have access to millions of videos on YouTube without any extra cost. Similar agreements concluded with Bravia also site and service C-Spot, offering original series of television comedy. According to Randy Ueynika, chief vice president consumer electronics unit Sony Electronics, Sony company has become one of the first to launch a similar television service in the United States. Bravia Internet Video Link - is a small module, which joins the ploskopanelnym LCD TVs Bravia. Of course, TV must have a broadband connection Ethernet. Thus, subscribers receive the service without the possibility of using a personal computer on their TV viewing diverse online entertainment content - movies, television programs, video clips from YouTube, as well as news and weather forecasts. You can buy a module for $ 300 on the site, in Sony Style retail stores and authorized dealers of Sony. The device is compatible with most models of televisions Bravia, issued at the end of 2007, and many new models presented in 2008.

Meanwhile, the Internet Corporation Google has not yet been able to earn substantial sums on videoservise YouTube, which it acquired in 2006 for $ 1.65 billion - about the company's head said Eric Schmidt. Schmidt said that the possibility of earning at YouTube "seems obvious", but Google so far "has not found the right prescription". He also added that the aim of the company is not monetization of all and all, and change the world. Monetization same - only the technology to pay for these changes. Google has already introduced its system on YouTube contextual advertising. Sam YouTube in March of 2008 introduced a system Insight, which allows advertisers to know how visitors find a clip, what time it looked likely, in what region the topic roller aroused most interest. I recall that visit YouTube each day hundreds of millions of people - this is the most popular videoservis in the world.

Analysts research company IDC predicted that in 2008 the volume of world PC market will grow at 9.6% - up to $ 286 billion Prior to the 2012 market will grow by 5-6% annually, by 2012 reaching $ 354 billion And laptops overtaking sales desktops already in 2009. Before the CIS market this mini-revolution dokatitsya delayed for three years, experts believe. Overall, in 2008 the world will be sold 310 million PCs including desktops, laptops and servers standard Intel architecture against 269.1 million a year earlier, said the report IDC. Previously, IDC analysts predicted that laptops overtaking desktops only in 2010. According to estimates IDC, in 2008 the sale of desktops will grow by only 2.2%, notebooks same - at 34.5%. The company Gartner, published its forecast of the market PCs simultaneously with IDC, also pointed to the increasing role of notebook PCs in the market structure. Gartner research director George Shiffler said: "Sales of mobile PCs have surpassed our expectations in I quarter of 2008". According to the forecasts Gartner, in 2008 the world will be 297 million PCs sold. In the notebook segment in the CIS, according to the company ITResearch, dominated by Asian producers, share the same Russian firms is around 6%. Now on laptops accounted for about one third of the post-PC market. Sales rose in desktops I quarter of 2008 by about 7%, laptops - at 60-70%. And while growth in the coming years will slow to 40-50%, laptops could overtake desktops sales within two to three years.

The new record company Enders Analysis says that TV and the Internet passed to become the largest advertising market in Britain already this year. It is expected that in 2008 - m spending on online advertising in Britain is 19% of the total expenditure on advertising. According to specialists Enders Analysis, a large market for online advertising will grow at the expense of advertising in print. In absolute terms, on the basis of 2008, spending on online advertising in Britain will grow at 26.4% and is worth about $ 7 billion

Social network LinkedIn during the fourth round of funding from investors attracted $ 53 million Based on the parameters of the deal, the market value of LinkedIn is a billion dollars. In the transaction involved the company Bain Capital Ventures, as well as the current co-owners of LinkedIn - Sequoia Capital, Bessemer Venture Partners and Greylock Partners. I recall that in 2007 the same way was assessed social network Facebook. Microsoft Corporation has bought 1.6% of the company $ 240 million at a monthly rate of $ 15 billion for 100%. The network LinkedIn is intended primarily for the business professional communication. Audience network is 23 million users by the end of 2008 their number should exceed 30 million over 5 years of existence LinkedIn investors have invested in it more than $ 80 million

And so an interesting study in terms of business social networks, conducted by the Russian holding company Romir, a poll internetchikov 1300. It turns out that more than half the users of social networks (53%) simply do not notice posted in the resource advertising. Sometimes advertisements notice 42% of users. Always pay attention to advertising only 2% of the respondents. Daily enjoys social networks 54% of users. Increase total comes online youth between the ages of 18 to 24 years. 44% of respondents spend on social networks from five minutes to half an hour. The most popular networks in RuNet become "", "My World" Mail.Ru and "". They know 92%, 71% and 66% of respondents respectively. The most malopopulyarnoy is a network of researchers called (obviously meant network Facebook, located at On it heard only 12% of survey participants. Most respondents - 72% - registered on the "Odnoklassnikah". Following is "" with 44%. In the third place "My World" Mail.Ru from 38%. None of the social networks are not registered only 12% of respondents.

The company Adobe Systems issued a report on performance in II quarter of 2008 fiscal year (ended May 30). From March to May inclusive Adobe has received $ 886.9 million of income. This is almost 20% higher than in II quarter of fiscal year 2007, when the company's revenue was $ 745.6 million net profit Adobe in the past fiscal quarter reached $ 214.9 million For purposes of comparison: the year before the company received $ 152.5 million profit. Thus, for the year quarterly earnings growth Adobe was about 40%. Good performance in the Adobe attributed the high demand for products outside the United States. According to the Executive Director Adobe Shantanu Narayen, the company sees good prospects for growth in Eastern Europe, Brazil and China. According to the forecasts of analysts, in the III quarter Adobe may receive proceeds in the amount of $ 855 million to $ 885 million worth to add that Adobe recently announced the release of the ninth version of the package Adobe Acrobat documents to the format PDF. One of the most significant innovations in Acrobat 9 became a full-fledged support technology Adobe Flash. At the same time, Adobe Acrobat 9 company submitted a new family of Internet services, which comprises a means of collective work, the system of Web conferencing, and file storage information.

Global wholesale prices on flash memory type NAND continue to decline. To date, 8 Gbit chip price fell to $ 2.35. The specialists explain this relatively small demand for consumer electronics products - buyers have reduced costs because of the deteriorating economic situation. Interestingly, the demand for NAND chips SSD in the segment also remains sluggish compared with earlier forecasts. In other words, rough series of announcements SSD has no influence on the situation in the industry. Indeed: the producers soon to fight with declining prices for 16 Gbit chips below the $ 4. As a precautionary measure, deterrent further decline in the prices of flash memory type NAND, called themselves producers transfer capacity of producing DRAM.

The Russian economy grow is not so much oil, how many telecommunications. Revenue from providing telecommunications services in Russia in I quarter of 2008, compared with the same period in 2007 increased by 20.9% - until 275.238,5 million rubles. In doing so, operators of traditional revenues amounted to 90.438,7 million rubles., Increasing by 10.2%. Revenues from local telephony services in urban areas amounted to 30.6 billion rubles. That the 5.8% increase on the I quarter of 2007, revenues from telecommunications services in rural areas - 2.7 billion rubles. -- An indicator remained at the level of last year. Revenue from providing mobile communications services grew by 21.7% - until 117.834,7 million rubles. Revenue from telecommunications services (distance, intra, international) in the period reached 30.399,3 million rubles., Increasing by 13.5%. Revenues from services operators accession and traffic increased by 26.9% - up to 37.8 billion rubles. Revenues from postal communication services grew by 30.2% - up to 18 billion 697.3 million rubles. Russian investment in the sector of the Russian Federation in connection I quarter of 2008, compared with the same period in 2007 increased by 46% - to 24.349,8 million rubles. In I quarter of 2007, investments totalled 16,681 million rubles. Entering fixed assets during the reporting period amounted to 16.732,1 million rubles. That, at 26.4% more than I about the quarter in 2007 figures, if you have enough forces them to understand, very illustrative. But comment on them until I still will not - wait for the outcome of the year.

1) "Get Money for Clicks" - Fastest Growing Domain Parking Company in the World.
2) Search your domain name wishing to have! FREE DOMAINS -

"Looking to the future" - Intel Corporation

Intel Corporation introduced more than 70 fantastic projects and concepts developed in its laboratories and on the environment, health care, computation using graphics, wireless mobile solutions, etc. In these studies the company has invested nearly $ 6 billion annually. Chief Technical Director and Senior Fellow, Intel Justin Rattner said that in the next five years, thanks to today's investment in research, there will be technologies that radically alter human interaction with computers and help to significantly change the environment.

The processor is Intel Atom emerged as a result of a small project "Snocone" one of the laboratories Intel, whose goal was study the possibility of establishing a processor with ultra energy-based architecture Intel. Similarly, Intel vPro processor technology for business platforms have been the result of Intel held in 1990 - years of research to create a universal Serial Bus (USB) for connection to PC music players, keyboards, cameras and other devices.

As the number of kernels into the microprocessor Intel will significantly increase the use of parallel computing (where several computing tasks handled simultaneously) on a massive computers, leading to an unprecedented empowerment of visual computing, including realistic three-dimensional environment, operational analysis of real-world video images and more natural ways user interaction with their devices.

Companies Neusoft and Intel demonstrated the future of automotive application, in which cameras are "eyes", and computers based on multicore processors play the role of "brain". Cars will be able to identify much more precisely the situation dangerously close to other vehicles or pedestrians and take measures to prevent accidents.

For this type of visual computing requires a much higher computing power, as well as addressing the problems of parallel processing (multiple simultaneous queries processor). In the annex to the road used the results of studies on programming for Intel Ct - expanding language C / C + +, created in laboratories Intel. It ensures the smooth scaling from 2 to 8 nuclei programs to prevent accidents, without requiring the development of additional software or compilers.

Special technology under the name "power management platform will provide continuous monitoring of changes in the computer and intelligent energy consumption reduction or complete disconnection of unused system components, such as wireless ports or USB. The first results of work in this direction demonstrate the possibility of reducing by more than 30% of energy consumption in a state of idle or low activity. In the next few years, Intel researchers hope to multiply the achievements in this area and to reduce energy consumption by 50% computer, regardless of whether he is able to idle or works. One day in the future, power management platform will be used in the entire range of products Intel - from mobile Internet devices (MID) to the most high-performance servers.

Personalized technology will help solve the problem of rising costs, due to the increasing number of chronically ill and aging population, while patients will be able to more actively monitor their health.

One example of the commitment of Intel multi Research Center became the technological research aimed at achieving an independent lifestyle (TRIL): research organization, jointly established by Intel Corporation and the Irish government to develop technologies that will enable people to maintain independent living at any age. One recent innovation, the proposed center TRIL - BioMOBIUS, inexpensive research computing platform, based on which the staff, not having deep technical knowledge, can easily and quickly create tools for medical research.
Another example of decisions, research-based Intel, can serve as provided by Step A system analysis, to identify key factors Step A man (or manner of walking speed) and determines the risk of falling. Today is just a research project, however, such concepts can improve the quality of life of patients and reduce the burden on the health care system.

Researchers seek to establish Intel technology, which compact mobile Internet devices will be able to receive information from the surrounding environment and interact with it so that the small size of these devices do not inconvenience the user.

Thus, for small mobile devices, due to limited physical channels of input-output, will be particularly convenient speech interfaces. Intel researchers demonstrated the speech interface manages the connections between two mobile devices and wireless display for sharing resources and services. For example, when the collective viewing photos user will be able to manage the timing naturally mobile device with a TV large-format, proiznosya respective teams.

1) "Get Money for Clicks" - Fastest Growing Domain Parking Company in the World.
2) Search your domain name wishing to have! FREE DOMAINS -