Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Bush Down

Yessssssssssssssssss, the guy just flow, and still manages such power?

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Vulnerabilities - a profitable business?

All we hear from time to time about vulnerabilities in software that allow people to organize botnety nasty, get control of servers and banks to write off from the accounts of unsuspecting ordinary person and then earned blood money ... Vulnerabilities - is, of course, an integral attribute of any software. But what they found? And, more importantly, by whom?

In general, if there is a program without mistakes, they are so simple in structure, that the user is not interested. Where the number of lines of code exceeds one program (which is written something like "printf (" Hello World !");"), appears and place for a variety of bugs, vulnerabilities and other unclean, which zagovarivayut program programmers yes testers. There are, of course, some ideas on how to reduce the number of errors in the software, where this is particularly critical. Think programming language Ada, functional programming, development through testing (test-driven develop-ment) ... Only special popularity they do not purchased. Difficult to say why - it is possible that all entirely without a twinge of conscience without any conscience, you can write off on the inertia of programmers and even managers, guiding design software products ...

Interesting question of how reveals the existence of vulnerabilities. It would seem that everything is very simple: the user is working with the program, and suddenly he Spybot error message (or program hangs, or even any extraordinary events), and about this error reported in the blog user. Blogs are criminals - and here we are no longer just a bug, a vulnerability in all its terrible beauty. Only, despite the seemingly plausible this scenario, it is not too likely. Look news related vulnerabilities in the programs: the lion's share of them starts with phrases like "the well-known expert on security MakTakoy This is something reported on them found new vulnerabilities in popular operating system Kastryuliks." Who are these experts on security and why they are seeking vulnerabilities? Agree, a rather curious question.

To those who have such experts on security, no doubt, I think no one does not arise. Good understanding of protection issues can only someone who understands well and in the attack. That is, speaking in Russian, experts on security (usually true, this phrase used even with some adjective, showing that security concerns are the scope of information technology: experts on information security, network security experts, experts on computer security and so on and so forth) - It's easy re-crackers. Well, actually, it is obvious, and nothing terrible is not - can only rejoice over such people get the opportunity to legally engage in a favourite cause. Another issue that they receive for holding this case? Indeed, hardly qualified prefer to leave their attacker, though not legal, but highly profitable business in order to be able to find other people's mistakes free.

Many well-known experts on security work for the successful and large companies producing software for which the death of similar mistakes. For example, this programme for the banking industry or on-board aircraft systems, which should not be available for infiltration from the outside, but the obligation to ensure a stable relationship with those with whom you want to be bound. Of course, not everyone will agree to free hacker "sell" Corporations - even if the price for his skills and will be appointed very, very attractive. Many experts on security are opening their own companies, research vulnerabilities, data collection and compilation of various bulletins on vulnerabilities in the programs. This business has a very good income - such as the attention not only to buy the company, whose products are found vulnerability, but also those who wish to exploit these vulnerabilities. Not necessarily so hackers - they simply do not have enough money to buy such information, they often engage in that resell virus, spammers and other dark figures found loopholes. No, here, but rather a question of competing companies wishing podmochit reputation of any publication of information about product vulnerabilities.

What I tell all this? And that Belarusians would be well to create forces companies dealing with information security, rather than the fruits of outsourcing firms, which differ only names. This business requires a much smaller initial investment - need only the knowledge, plus a reputation that will earn quality services. However, of course, go protorennymi paths outsourcing probably easier ... Or I am wrong? I would like to believe in it ...

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For that programmers have little pay?

Staff members of the state of Virginia Polytechnic Institute (USA) compiled a list of technical skills of programmers, for which no longer offer high salaries.


As companies use such Web 2.0-technologies such as Ajax, the demand for specialists in HTML is rapidly declining. According to a study conducted by Foote Partners, pay for the ability to understand the technologies such as Ajax and XML, has increased in the second half of 2007 to 12.5%, while demand for such technology predecessor as HTML, just fell.

Obsolete programming languages

The ability to program in languages such as Cobol, Fortran and others, are no longer valued as they used to. Specialists involved in language Cobol, have been on a horse when there was a desperate year 2000 problem, but now they do not have affairs. Some other applications, for example, Delphi and PowerBuilder, widespread in 90 - x, also did not enjoy more active demand.

According to a study Foote Partners, knowledge of Cobol, PowerBuilder and Jini were among the most low-paying skills in the second half of 2007. This does not necessarily mean that these technologies are not used today, companies simply do not want to pay for their knowledge.


Good knowledge of operating systems remains the most popular skill, but Novell NetWare operating system is not keeping pace with other technologies in this field. Networking software NetWare left far from the position that was in 90 - ies. In terms of demand, the ability to work with Windows Server and Linux replaces the ability to work with NetWare

He-IP network

IP demand for knowledge and the Internet are much higher than knowledge-IP networks and ability to work with such technologies as IBM System Network Architecture (SNA), continues among the lowest paid. According to a study Foote Partners, knowledge of SNA is only 2% of basic salary in the fourth quarter of 2007, and has knowledge of the security systems of entire 17%.

Technical Support

Association of Computer Technology Trade Association (CompTIA) interviewed 3578 managers on the selection of IT personnel to find out what skills will remain important and significant in the future. It was found that there is now little demand knowledge of hardware and experience in working with printers and PCs.

Also in the year 2007 witnessed a decline to 11.1% of pay knowledge ITIL.

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Discomfiture with obituary Jobs

August 27 American Bloomberg news shocked his clients news of the death of founder and head of Apple Steve Jobs. The information was released tape prepared in advance obituary multi-executive director of Apple. As noticed obtain a copy of journalists of various media, "fish" obituary has not been filled and contained scribbled text-processing staff for Bloomberg.

Of course, the error was quickly detected and quickly corrected: £ agency publication of news feeds, and then apologized to subscribers. However, journalists online edition of Gawker.com managed to retain the text obituary and subsequently released him with minor cuts.

Error admitted staff Bloomberg, in general, not so accidental. We already wrote about rumors of serious illness 53 - Jobs summer - they began to spread after the June statement strongly pohudevshego chapter Apple developers at the conference WWDC. At the time, many media talking about the deadly disease Steve Jobs and recalled that this IT-charismatic businessman in October 2003 - go diagnosed cancer of the pancreas. In 2004 the operation was successful, but in 2008 - m talking about recidivism - in early summer Apple shares even markedly cheaper, as well as leaders of the company does not name the likely successor Jobs.

Eventually Jobs journalist had to personally call The New York Times Joe Nosere and tell details about their illness. Nosera vowed not to disclose the contents of that conversation, but then in his newspaper column stated that no Jobs not have cancer, his illness did not fatally, while "quite unusual". But the diagnosis by the doctors headed Apple, and has remained a mystery.

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The entire salt in the nucleus! About nuclei operating systems.

The term "core operating system" can be especially often hear from fans POSIX-systems. However, you can see, this does not mean that the same, for example, Windows, the kernel does not as such. What is the operating system kernel? What are they for? What are the nucleus of different OS? Here's to these questions we are with you and try to find answers.

Why kernel?

It would be logical to assume that the kernel - this is a central and in so doing fairly important part of the operating system. In general, this is true - the operating system kernel called by analogy with the atomic nucleus, which is the most important part of any atom. However, the atomic nucleus simultaneously and most massive of the atom, but the operating system kernel, by virtue of their design features, the largest part of the whole OS is not an option.

So, what is a kernel? This is part of the operating system permanently located in RAM and a dedicated processing system interruptions. That treatment interruptions is the most important functions of the nucleus, because it will ultimately get virtually all other OS functionality. The core exercises, however, only pre-processing interruptions, passing them on the further processing of running processes in the system. This allows you to handle interrupts quickly enough, and the kernel can quickly respond to each new interruption.

However, treatment interruptions - not only from all the functions performed by the nucleus of the operating system. Of course, developers additionally navesheno the kernel many other obligations that it is also obliged to perform the job of substantive work. First, there is pressure to work with the processes: the allocation of resources between the two machines, their creation and destruction, synchronization, etc. Secondly, the kernel is the fact that singles out and picks up blocks of memory needed by applications for the job. And thirdly, the kernel provides system and running it processes user access to the functions of input-output. In addition, the core can also engage in providing applications functions file system and many other functions that OS developers deem critical to work under it launches applications.

You can ask whether any operating system is the nucleus. The question, despite the seeming naivety, it is quite legitimate and logical. However, the answer will be brief: Yes, all. In any operating system is the part that has not been involved in bitter struggle for system resources - simply because of this loaded into RAM and always has the advantage in access to CPU time. It is this part and is the core.

However, of course, depending on the operating system and its purpose, the nucleus differ - and even very. Which ones? Now we are with you and get that talk about the kinds of operating systems kernels.

What are the nucleus?

Types of kernels of operating systems, in fact, not so much, but because a relatively concise list of characteristics of each of them is not complexity.

To begin, perhaps, with such interesting things as monolithic kernel. As the name of this type operating systems kernels, they are highly integrated components of the nucleus, which leads to a number of characteristics of his work - a higher speed and relatively simple to develop. But, the truth, if there is a negative, that if any of the kernel modules will not function correctly, it could lead to incorrect work of the whole kernel (read, to the collapse of the operating system). All components of this nucleus are working in the same address space - there is every kernel is the one great program. Older operating systems were all exclusively with the monolithic kernel and demanded recompiling the kernel when changing the configuration hardware, which worked with the operating system. Modern operating systems with a monolithic kernel is also not completely cured of this disease: when changes in the equipment you need to change some modules in the nucleus and then re-implement the whole kernel. Is it convenient? Hardly. But, nevertheless, thanks to the simplicity of establishing such a nucleus, monolithic architecture enjoys large popularity among systems programmers. POSIX-system (at least most of them), including BSD-systems, using the same architecture as the old UNIX 's, and MS-DOS - it is monolithic kernel. Therefore, users need to BSD-kernel systems collect every time a new when they add a new device in the system. However, this is not all BSD-systems - they are quite a lot.

Despite the fact that users of BSD-systems continue to play with his beloved monolithic kernel architecture, progressive mankind has gone ahead and invented such nuclear architecture, which eliminates a number of shortcomings monolithic kernel. One such solution is modular kernel.

Modular architecture allows the kernel changes in hardware configuration of the computer that operates the operating system did not perform recompiling the most important part of the whole operating system. What a way to do it? In fact, everything is easy. The nuclei of this type allow to work with external loadable modules that provide support for various devices - drivers. Since external modules, then you change equipment enough to change the set of these modules, and the nucleus has not necessarily touch. This, incidentally, and very convenient for developers - drivers for operating systems with a modular architecture nuclear easier to write and debug. However, modularity not eliminates the need to have a nucleus of some of the resident, which can not be accomplished in the form of plug-in. The modular architecture of the kernel used in more advanced, compared to the old UNIX 's, the operating system Linux, and that much of its popularity among users POSIX-systems. Modular kernels are also working in one address space, allowing them to continue to work quickly, but still imposes restrictions on mass drivers. Therefore, the modular kernel does not become the latest stage in the development of operating systems kernels.

Microkernel - it is already more advanced version of nuclear architecture. It provides the very core of relatively short list of options, which comprises normally only work with the processes of hardware and operating system abstraction. The rest functionality of the operating system introduced in the special processes that have the status of custom and called, typically services. This approach to organizing the operating system kernel has several advantages compared with monolithic and modular kernel. Thanks to the address space for many processes, more stable nucleus to mistakes in the service processes, but to "talk" between the process itself spent quite a lot of computer resources - at least the same CPU time. Therefore mikroyadernye operating systems have already emerged when the power of computers can not lose in performance issues during such a scheme organizations operating system kernel. Microkernel convenient for users who can change drivers directly in the process of the OS, and system programmers who do not need to climb into the kernel to add some functionality into the operating system: it is enough to realize service, which will work as a simple user application. Systems with micronuclei - is MacOS X, QNX, Symbian OS and some other, lesser known.

As you can see, the list of operating systems with any of the above-mentioned types of nuclei were not the most common operating system in the world - sirech Windows (meaning ruler NT - NT 4.0, 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, 2008). The reason for this, as you have probably guessed, is the kernel of Windows is a special type - this hybrid kernel. For this name - a hybrid of micronuclei and monolithic kernel. Many theorists build operating systems by Microsoft for swearing at the nucleus of its OS, but the architecture of the most efficient in terms of a combination of reliability and performance. Of course, apart from the merits of both architectures, it unites and their shortcomings, but year after year is becoming less, because there is no such difficulties that Microsoft would not overcome the sake of money. The components of Windows kernel work in the same address space (which, as you see, comes from older operating systems with monolithic kernel), but that interact with each other directly, but through messaging (this is true for mikroyader).

There are other types of nuclei - for example, nanoyadro, which only handles interrupts, or ekzoyadro, which in addition to interrupt only organizes interaction processes and distributes memory. But the kernel does not demand too, because modern hardware allows for a "normal" kernel architecture, even in embedded operating systems (such as in the case of the same QNX).


As you can see, nothing conceptually complex in the nuclei of operating systems do not. This part should be for each operating system, because without the nucleus lost meaning in the OS. In doing so, depending on the tasks in the creation of an operating system kernel it can have its architecture. What exactly - decide developers already operating system itself, but the nuclei of all the most famous and popular operating systems, we talked with you.

If you decide to write an operating system with its core (and this is quite difficult), the information contained in the article, you will not even be enough to simply proceed to the direct-writing software code. Well, here, as they say, Google in aid. Information on the kernels of operating systems on the Internet a lot, some of it before it even in Russian, so that finding, I think the special problems should not arise.

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News for developers

* The company Embarcadero Technologies presented CodeGear Delphi 2009 and C Builder 2009, new versions of legendary means to develop Windows-applications. The main innovation was a long time ago expectancy full support for Unicode in the library VCL. Certainly not the only innovation implemented by developers of the Embarcadero. In 2009 Delphi has support Delphi Generics and anonymous methods, C Builder in 2009 - support the standard C 0x. In the library VCL controls introduced in the style of Microsoft Office 2007, added standard modules to work with a graphical format PNG. Now Web-library to create applications with support for AJAX and Silverlight, and in working with the database updated dbExpress-drivers for InterBase, Blackfish SQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Informix, IBM DB2, SQL Anywhere, Sybase and MySQL. Also products in 2009 - and an opportunity to line architecture design databases with funds ER / Studio. Sales of new versions of Delphi and C Builder has already begun, but test on the site there is no manufacturer.

* The company Oracle issued a set of plug-ins to develop an open environment Eclipse - Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse. It is designed to work with the application server Fusion WebLogic. The package supports the technology FastSwap, which allows developers to make corrections directly into working applications without restarting the application server and even the application itself. Oracle Enterprise Pack also includes tools for working with Web services, XML, Spring Framework, JavaServer Faces, CSS and JavaScript.

* The company released the first version TeamExpand utilities Clone Detective, designed to search for duplicate pieces of Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. While utility is free and only supports C #, but in subsequent versions also planned to add the possibility to work with Visual Basic. NET, and Managed C. Backup software code plots allocated a pink stripe, so that their relatively easy to notice.

* The company Mainsoft has released new versions of products to create applications for Java EE, Linux and UNIX with Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. Branded cross-compiler. NET-Java lets you create your ASP.NET Web applications in the languages of C # and Visual Basic, and then execute these applications on application servers Java EE (supported by IBM WebSphere Portal, WebSphere Application Server, Lotus Expeditor, Lotus Notes, Tomcat ). Mainsoft for UNIX and Linux 5.2 enables developers using the language C, the opportunity to create applications in the environment of Visual Studio 2008, and then execute these applications at any one of 21 POSIX-supported platforms. In Mainsoft for UNIX and Linux 5.2 support an HP-UX 11i v2 and HP-UX 11i v3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

* The company presented FutureIT EZManage SQL Pro, formerly known as EZManage SQL ENterprise Edition, - a tool for database administration and development for DBMS Microsoft SQL Server. EZManage SQL Pro supports optimizing backup, monitoring and disaster recovery databases and, as they say developers of this software allows servers to prepare Microsoft SQL Server to any situation.

* Check out the new Coda 1.5, a new version of web-development environment for Mac OS X, which supports version control system Subversion. Also refreshed feature "Find and replace", which allows users to search and replacement snippets will open all files and files in the selected directory. There are tips for code directly in the main window.

* HiT Software Company has released a new version of DBMoto numbered 6.5. As stated in the official description of this software, it greatly simplifies replication, and migration data transfer between different DBMS. In DBMoto 6.5 developers are invited to increased productivity, more comfortable setting, closer integration with Oracle. DBMoto 6.5 allows grouping assignments for data replication and determine the sequence of implementation, and in case of system failure administrators will also be able to perform tasks resume from the point at which it is cut.

* MicroOLAP Technologies has released a new version of DAC for MySQL numbered 2.6.3. DAC for MySQL - a strong component library to access the MySQL database from Delphi-applications used by many developers in major projects.

* Company Axiom Software released Axiom Stack 3.2.6 - the new version environment for rapid development of Web applications with open source. In Axiom Stack entered debugger and browser objects Axiom Debugger, realized in the form of web-based applications. In addition to open source, the new version had the opportunity to separate encryption and licensing for Java-created modules and applications based on technology Axiom Stack In the new version of the product there is a possibility of linking domain names to the annexes, and debugger Axiom Debugger now included in the package, comprising module Axiom Inspector. Among other things, a new version of the debugger contains language interpreter JavaScript.