Friday, April 11, 2008

William Gibson - 60

March 17, 2008 a significant portion of humanity will celebrate computerized shestidesyatiletny anniversary of one of the best-known writers of fiction of our time - William Gibson - "godfather" father of literary genre cyberpunk. In mrachnovato-futuristic books Gibson proved surprisingly predicted much of what surrounds us today, and that, apparently, will become part of our reality tomorrow.

Who is mister cyberpunk?

First, perhaps, is to determine the definitions (so forgive me readers tautology). William Gibson cyberpunk classic considered to be unconditional, but the founder of the genre - it is not. The term - in a completely different situation - in the early 80 - x "invented" then a little-known writer Bruce Bethke. Phrase picked editor Gardner Dozua fantastic literature, it is made (in general terms) the main features of a new direction. Then the term moved to the writer Bruce Sterling, which has already produced more detailed elaboration of its principles and tenets. In the end, it is Bruce Sterling is considered the main ideologue and advocate not only literary direction, but an entire subculture, obobschaemoy word "Blitz". And that William Gibson? And Gibson was the author of the canonical texts of this direction. Hacker beyond literary clubs and became known peace since the publication of novels "Johnny Mnemonic" and "Burning Chrome," novel "Neuromancer", "The Count Zero" and "Mona Lisa Overdrive". It is from his works, readers learned of the existence of hackers. Initially, the word itself does not exist, and in the early works of Gibson calls "computer hackers" cowboys. And it is Gibson introduced bypassing so popular in the last fifteen years the notion of "cyberspace".

Put simply, cyberpunk - it is science fiction era computer revolution. Fantastic Literature, in which no captain, star ships and travel to the center of Earth. No elves, orcs, dwarves, werewolves and other trolls. Hacker as a genre appeared simultaneously with the emergence of personal computers. At that time, very few were aware that the world is not just a fun new toys, a tool that significantly increases the possibility of Rights. Indeed, elementary particle upcoming information universe. Writers-kiberpanki and were the few who saw it all. The term "cyberpunk" has been very far-reaching and successful. First root in the word - "cyber" - straight points to a world in which human life nepredstavima without computer technology. The second root - "punk" - simply borrowed from the music: whereas, in the early 80 - x, has been extremely popular punk rock - and scandalous epatiruyuschaya music marginalized. Accordingly, the world is in the works of writers-kiberpankov depicted from the point of view of representatives of the social bottom, and the rogue criminals. It depicts aggressive and assertive, with the denial of the rules of conduct Introduced bourgeois society, the establishment and mass culture. In many ways, therefore, characterized by rigid cyberpunk trilleropodobnoe building plot, a lot of perenyavshee detectives "black" years old, wooden style, the language of heroes, constructed of computer, and street youth slang, the active use of words from other languages - mostly Japanese, and Russian .

Kids kiberproroka

William Ford Gibson was born March 17, 1948 in the provincial town of Conway Americas (South Carolina). In his youth, nothing presaged William loud literary career. In college he studied does not matter in the spirit of the time and often wandering hippoval. The university received a philological education, becoming a specialist in the field of English-language literature. It is in the student years he first appeared desire to become a writer. Here are just before the start of a real literary work was still far… In mid-1960 - x beginning of the war in Vietnam. In the States still existed troop universal appeal, as a young William Gibson is not burning desire to go to fight. Like many other young Americans of that time, he moved in 1968 to live in Canada - first in Toronto and then - in 1972 - m - in Vancouver, where lives so far. In Vancouver, he began to teach at a local university, and married after the birth of the first child began to finally write. The first product released by literary William Gibson became the story "The shrapnel gologrammnoy roses" ( "Fragments of a Hologram Rose"), released in 1977 in the journal Unearth. It was a small story about a new kind of entertainment - simstim. Speaking modern language, the history of technology immersion in a specially designed virtual reality. Over the next few years, Gibson has published several more stories including the cycle "Continuum Gernsbeka" ( "The Gernsback Continuum", 1981). This cycle has some time later, a separate brochure. Sometime in the year 1980 - m on the young science-fiction drew the attention of the popular literary editor of the magazine "Omni" Ellen Detlou. Soon it is in this journal have been published on the first truly kiberpankovskie Gibson Productions: "Johnny Mnemonic" (1981 - s) and "Burning Chrome" (1982 - s). After that William Gibson zaprimetil another famous literary editor - Terry Carr, which is precisely majored in science fiction. Carr proposed contract for Gibson debut novel, suggesting to include it in his book series "Ace Specials". Started.

Seeing the future

"Novel" Neuromancer, came out of print in 1984, immediately became a bestseller and the focus of criticism. In 1985 - m very non-standard for the time the product was won all the major awards in the field of English-language fiction: "Nebyula" (Writers Prize), "Hugo" (Readers Award), and Philip Dick Prize (Award for the best publication of the year in soft cover). But "Neuromancer" not only raised a bouquet of prestigious literary prizes - it was he, in fact, made a remarkable new direction generally accepted in the scientific fiction, called "cyberpunk." "For Neyromantom" followed by two more Gibson novel from the same series: "The Count Zero" (1986) and "Mona Lisa Overdrive" (1988). In literary terms, they do not concede "Neyromantu", but the overwhelming success of the first book have not been able to repeat. Perhaps this is due to the fact that by the time of their exit from Gibson, a host of imitators already, pozitsioniruyuschih their creativity as cyberpunk. However, the army of dedicated fans have remained Gibson. In 90 - x Gibson worked quietly and measured. In 1991 - m co-authored with Bruce Sterling novel was written in the genre of alternative fiction - "The machine Differences" (The Difference Engine, Version translation - "Differential computer"). Same authors call this genre stimpankom (steampunk - "steam punk"). "The machine differences" - a large-scale canvases that describes the XIX century Victorian England (among the characters - Disraeli, Byron and other historical identity). Gibson and Sterling, only to recreate a hypothetical situation in which due to mechanical computer, invented by Charles Bebbidzhem, computer revolution in the world has started a century earlier. Computer advances 90 - x Gibson pushed to a new kiberpankovskomu cycle. The first product was the novel "Virtual Light" (1993), differ greatly from the earlier book writer. His events unfolding in the beginning of the next century in San Francisco, which polurazrushen powerful earthquake and is divided into several zones. The main character - a private security firm employee - looking for the stolen sunglasses, but in reality - a prototype of a special device to penetrate into a virtual reality. Released in September 1996 - the first novel "Idoru" was devoted to the show-business future and the issue of coexistence of virtual personalities with real people. A continuation of a kind of "Virtual Light" and "Idoru" became final novel trilogy - "All partying tomorrow." In his novels William Gibson has been able to predict much. Among his brilliant foresight - all-pervasive Internet penetration in a man's life, social networks, supercomputers and artificial intelligence, Light PC (UMPC current advanced analogues), omnipotence of IT corporations, mechanical substitutes for human organs, the most bizarre youth subculture, etc. and etc.


Notable trace of William Gibson and left in cinematography. It all started in autumn 1987, when he phoned producer David Giler - one of the creators of "Alien" film. After the huge success of the first two films (they filmed Ridley Scott and James Cameron), the producers wanted to make a third film is not worse than previous ones, but their fresh ideas they already have been. Gibson agreed to "invent something" for two months and wrote a script. But the idea of science producers not staged, and a few years later the film "Alien"-3 was withdrawn different scenario. However, Gibson is not particularly disconcerting - he had worked on screen story "Johnny Mnemonic".

The movie "Johnny Mnemonic" teacher-director Robert Longo went to the screens in 1995. The script for the movie Gibson has written himself, he also took an active part in the shootings. Initially, the film was planned budget in the modest-half or two million dollars. But the main role suddenly wanted to film a popular young actor Keanu Reeves, after which times the budget rose to $ 30 million From famous actors were also involved Dolf Lundgren, Barbara Zukova, rock musician Ice-Ti and Henry Rollins. I must note, while working on the script seriously Gibson rewrote plot: events was given a large scale and a distinctive Hollywood superficiality. For example, female ninja Molly in the film no - instead it is quite ordinary (for the future, of course) female bodyguard Jane. It is believed that Gibson, hoping one day to remove the film "Neyromantu", did not want to lose the copyright on the beloved heroine. As critics, the film has a very beautiful and unusual, but he failed in rolled. But among kinogurmanov acquired a cult reputation, finding themselves in the same breath with "running on razor blades" Ridley Scott, who at one time also did not make a big cashier.

In 1998, the silver screen has been moved to another early Gibson story - "New Rose Hotel" (New Rose Hotel). This time the script worked over a group of sponsors, with the result that the original plot was decent changed. The movie depicts the bleak adventures in the not too distant future, a pair of industrial spies, which leads around the same finger of enlisted prostitute. The painting is not made special Sumo, but was seen and appreciated by fans for the dignity of the genre. And finally, William Gibson was the author of a number of scenarios series "Secret" material. Of course, these are the series that have no kids, flying plates and genetic experiments. But is cyberspace, which roam unknown substance and lagging mysterious plots.


"Basic", if I may say so, novels by William Gibson collected two trilogy:
Trilogy "cyberspace" (Sprawl trilogy):
1. "Neuromancer", 1984.
2. "Count Zero", 1986, a more correct translation of the title - "Zero" or "Countdown Obnulenie counter".
3. "Mona Liza Overdrive", 1988.

"Bridge Trilogy":
1. "Virtual Light", 1993.
2. "Idoru", 1996.
3. "All Tomorrow's Parties", 1999.

Not included in any machine cycles novel "The Difference Engine", 1990, co-authored with Bruce Sterling, as well as the latest novels "Pattern Recognition", 2003 and "Spook Country", 2008.
In addition to novels, Gibson also wrote many short stories and novels. Among the most well-known - "The shrapnel gologrammnoy roses", "Fight", "Zaholuste", "Burning Chrome," "Winter Market", "Johnny Mnemonic", "Continuum Gernsbeka", "Belonging", "Krasnaya Zvezda, the orbit of winter", "The Hotel New roses".

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