Monday, February 16, 2009

Blogs: the history of the phenomenon

Own Internet blogs nowadays have no surprise. Blogs has long ceased to be «the phenomenon on the Internet» - now a powerful marketing, social and political tool. Indeed, the very notion of «civic journalism» evolved precisely because of the wide spread of blogs. Blogging, like many other phenomena, generated by the Internet, have become not only a social factor, but part of our recent history. Well, let's see how it all began.

blogs phenomenonPhenomenon

Similarly, we can say only one thing: it all began in 1994. Researchers differ, who was the first bloggers on the planet. According to one view, the first time began to keep a diary on the internet no one famous student Justin Hall. According to another version, the creator of the first blog has been known programmer Dave Weiner. His online diary - Scripting News - first became widely known among users of the network. However, the word «blog» then did not exist. The word appeared 17 December 1997. The first used the word weblog Dzhorn Berger, author of Internet blog Robot Wisdom. A new word was formed from the phrase logging the web ( «leading online diary»). However, only in May 1999 on the creator of the blog Peterme Peter Merholts word weblog divided into two parts - we blog ( «we Diary»). Immediately came the verb to blog - «to online diary». Russian language was similar to the word «fast». Then, in 1999, an Internet businessman and journalist John Gilfoyl published, then as it turned out, the prophecy. According to Gilfoyla, informational sites that wish to win the competition with TV, radio and newspapers, should be bet on at least daily updates. Also Gilfoyl believed that the demand for short-news network, while carrying the imprint of the author's identity. After two years, blogs have become a huge influence in the U.S. and Europe - was born the concept of «civic journalism». Statistics impressive: in the early 1999-th, there were no more than 50 personal online diaries (almost all - in English). And in 2004, there were already from 2,4 million to 4,1 million in 2005, the number of blogs exceeds 15 million, and in early 2006 the first company Technorati reported that blogs are already at least 27.2 million . Today, the online diaries are not considered one already taken.

Birth of Industry

Generally 1999 was a turning point for the global blogosphere. In August, a small computer company Pyra Labs in San Francisco created a portal of Blogger - the first free, publicly available and easy to use tool for bloggers. And in December the same year, Rusty Foster has created specialized software Scoop, the first application on its website Kuro5hin. Since then, the readers of blogs can not only own a fast, but Moderate comments. Kuro5hin site was devoted to discussing the problems of technology and culture. In November 2000, started the politicization of blogs. Independent journalist Josh Marshall started the blog TalkingPointsMemo - it was discussed the so-called «Florida crisis» (the disputed results of the counting of votes in the presidential election). The company started to realize that the technology of blogs - this is not the only way to communicate, but also the public opinion forum. Less than a year - in the tragic September 2001, - the first time, bloggers have become a source of information for traditional media. New York sponsors online diaries have direct reports from the September 11 attack: publishing photos, describe what is happening, share rumors and versions. After the events at many of the Department of Journalism at American universities have begun to explore the phenomenon of blogs. Then followed the invasion of Iraq, during which many of the U.S. military set up their online diaries, which described the varieties of military action. The Iraqis, by the way, acted the same way.

Blogs, politics and media

In 2003, the Oxford English Dictionary the first time the word weblog, webloging (the process of creating blogs) and weblogger (the person who creates a blog). In March of that year, blogs have become a political tool. U.S. presidential candidate Howard Dean created a blog that covers the election - Dean Call To Action, later renamed the Blog To America. Many American politicians began to actively campaign and raise money for the campaign through blogs and bloggers. Its peak it reached in 2008 and is linked with the name of the first black U.S. President Barack Obama.

2004: The blogosphere is closely interested in MediaBusiness. Among the pioneers was the company Gawker Media, a blog Wonkette. And to this day it publishes rumors coming from the corridors of power in Washington. At the same time, traditional media - newspapers, magazines, television and radio - have published reviews of the popular blog and invite bloggers as commentators. Soon, as expected, there was the first conflict between traditional media and blogs. CBS has released a TV broadcasting program, which were demonstrated to archival documents, that George Bush Jr., was negligent soldiers who escaped the shipment to Viet Nam only through patronage. The transfer came in the midst of an election campaign. However, supporters of Bush in his blog have proven that the documents are used fabrication. CBS was forced to apologize. Through its influence blogs have become an attractive source of investment from traditional media. Bob Pittman, former head of MTV television and Internet service AOL, in 2003 paid $3.5 million for the blog-newsletter Daily Candy. In 2005, he launched a series of regional editions of Daily Candy. In 2006, the business newspaper Wall Street Journal reported that the market value of Daily Candy has reached $100 million in 2005, the largest media company Time Warner has acquired over $25 million group of blogs Weblogs, dedicated tehnokulture. And in 2006, Time Warner has launched a blogging Office Pirates, on the office culture, which became the general sponsor of car brand Dodge.

Domino Effect

In 2005, the magazine Advertising Age published the results of the study shows how much time Americans spend on your blog. As it turned out, the number of active readers of blogs was at that time about 35 million - a quarter of all employed residents of the United States. On average, each of them spent on reading blogs, 3.5 hours per week - 9% of the total length of stay in the workplace. This means that throughout 2005 a massive interest in the blogs for the U.S. economy resulted in the loss of almost 5 billion hours. If you estimate the scale of the losses based on the average hourly wage in the private sector ($16), the price closer to $80 billion in early 2006 on the company Hostway conducted a survey and found that one-third of Americans regularly visit blogs, and the same - never on They did not hear. 52% of respondents felt that bloggers should have the same rights as journalists working for traditional media. However, the level of confidence in the blogs was markedly lower than conventional media.

During 2006, estimated to Technorati, the number of blogs doubles every five and a half months. Every day, the network appeared about 75 thousand new pages online diary, that is, on average, one page per second. And first, it was no longer in America but for Europe. In this half updated blogs stopped after an average of three months since the start of their activities, while about 9% of blogs created automatically (mostly spam). Young was the first blogerskih series: according to a study Pew Internet Center, 19% of American teenagers in 2006, created their own blogs, while 28% regularly read these pages in the network. For comparison: in the same year, blogs were only 7% of adult Americans, and 27% of them regularly read other people's online journals.

Blogs as a science

It is only logical that such a massive social phenomenon, like blogs, quickly became the object of study. For example, the author of the book «Marketing Blog» Jeremy Wright has analyzed how the business is using blogs to their advantage. Study Wright showed that blogging is good for promoting the company brand, feedback from customers, develop a marketing strategy. The authors of a collection of essays «How to change our culture blogs» came to the conclusion that the blogosphere has become a unique place where a show can be passionate nature. Blogs have become the training ground for the millions of writers and journalists. They allow people to instantly interested and impartial to express their views on the events taking place in many different areas - in order to bring peace to their point of view, there is no better way. Blogs made that has not been able to do TV and radio - they forced millions of people to make their privacy and personal reflections to all the world.

David Kline and Dan Bursteyn, the authors of the book «Blog! As the newest mediarevolyutsiya revises policy, business and culture », note that the blogosphere is developing under the same laws as the entire Internet, but before - TV, radio, telegraph and other new items of mass communication. First, it is the inheritance of a single, then the phenomenon has attracted attention and are facilitated so that it becomes possible to use non-professionals, and ultimately new beginning to have an impact on all spheres of human activity. Hugh Hewitt, whom the U.S. described as «the first historian blogalizatsii», published a book «Blog: Understanding Information Reformation, which change the world». It, inter alia, he predicted that blogs would destroy the traditional literature. Already, some writers are beginning to imitate the style of bloggers, many of which, moreover, have a far greater audience and fame than professional writers. Also, blogging has radically changed the essence of journalism. Traditional journalism relies on the fact - so the news is born. Blog relies not on fact but on opinion of the author of this fact. «Now, the echo of what is more important than the talk». Specialists in the field of information technology blogger Robert scrape and Shel Israel wrote the book «Direct communication», which revealed six different blogs from other communication channels.

Blogosphere Runet

Do not stay away from rampant blogging hobbies and Russia with the CIS countries. The most popular blog site The Internet has become the Russian LiveJournal. This service was established in 1999, an American computer programmer Brad Fitspatrikom for their colleagues, but quickly turned into a commercial project with a lot of users worldwide. Known that the first Russian LiveJournal users become programmer Ivan Matveyev (nick linker). Popularity in runet service acquired through the famous Roman writer Leybovu network. His first post appears in LJ 1 February, 2001 is noteworthy that for the message is still written comments.

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