Sunday, January 24, 2010

Protection is free.

"Plizzz, give the key to anti-virus, ceased litsuha"! Who among us has not seen the mountains of such requests in the network? Some may even remember their similar requests. But what's behind them? Personal financial crisis? The contradictory desire to feel secure, safe to use hacked antivirals? There is no single answer will not let nobody, but you can definitely say that this is a mass delusion, of whom we'll try to get out.

Do you, dear friends, that to date the number of illegal users of licensed software security exceeds the number of legitimate? This is anecdotal evidence, because officially confirm it until that very few people can, and even those who could officially confirm it, usually for one reason or another do not do. What is the problem, do anti-virus software and firewalls in fact so expensive that many people can not afford their own legally? No, no, no, it does not it. Just a mass of people everywhere and in all prefer that the well-advertised, to what is spoken by only a narrow circle (according to this logic, by the way, it cost them to trust their innermost secrets are not your best friend in distress proven, but, for example, Philip Towns). And if it is still possible to take on a freebie, a desire to increase twofold: Not only did I have the most cool and popular antivirals, so I still use them as the steepest gangster - FREE! This is the first comprehensive reason. Let us examine whether this is really cool.

A little to the question of popular antivirus

The topic is not simple, so a little abstract from the basic question, to think objectively. What kind of cars most often steal? Right, those who are in great demand. It is clear that there are "special orders" and "accident", and other exceptions, but most often take the popular cars - such statistics. The next Let's have a glimpse at the one closer to us the problem. Under what Axis is written in dozens of times more viruses than for all others combined? Again you are right - of course, by all adored "Wind". Why ordinary hacker-crackers for a month from morning to night sweating over his worm for "conquest" of the world? It is quite satisfied with and 90 percent (with a great plus/minus/taxes ...), but to write a "malicious" under Windows guy will spend less than a week. Therefore, in practice, despite all sorts of frightening statistics and advertising, sitting under some Ubuntu without anti-virus, you are risking your data even less than under Windows with the latest protective complex. True, Linux still too should be able to fine-tune for safe operation, so that you can assume that I was a bit exaggerated, but I still believe what I think =). Well now think about major current issues. Imagine a huge range worldwide network. They drive tanks, soldiers running around, flying airplanes and bustle of panic civilians - users of the popular operating systems. That they are constantly screaming at the loudspeakers: "new yellow suit has now become much more powerful than the old red, only to buy it - it not only protects you from bullets, but from small fragments, even ..." And the motley mass of rushes (or rather, barely moves his feet under the weight of built-in conditioners and other life support devices), but not to think that this bright massive hull only attracts the attention of the enemy and slows the movement. In fact, you'll be better protected using a lightweight, but low-key body armor. Because the bulk of new viruses can circumvent popular defense, and the circumvention of the lesser-known defenses crackers often simply do not want to waste time because of the low popularity of these security features. Hence the paradoxical balance between the powerful and popular anti-virus not very popular middle. Protective mechanisms of the leaders in the field of security is more, but more effort is expended ezhednevno virtual criminals to find ways to circumvent these defenses. The choice, of course, for you - I just gave you the information for consideration. Let us now examine the ratio price / quality security software.

Fee-free, stolen

By purchasing licensed software, you are in most cases not only pay for work of developers, but also get tailored support for all possible questions. By phone or e-mail you will always help with the installation program, the correct configuration, prompt resolution options to exceptional situations. If you are using a licensed anti-virus or firewall, then the developers will try to advance to warn you personally about the new virtual threats and ways to combat them. In this complex of services and is a simple and reliable way of paid security. The only downside here is that for such services must pay. What to do? Free cheese is only in a mousetrap. Or not?

There are a number of free information security systems. They are often paid by developers of products are produced to highlight the user or independent developers who wish so to preserve their networks against attacks from infected computers: to prevent a pandemic of plague medicine should be free for all. In most cases, these programs have all the basic advantages of paid counterparts, although support for such products can be minimized or absent altogether. But do you want for the price in rubles and zero zero kopeks you not only developed a complete product, but also provided full support? For these purposes, the Internet is a huge number of forums for the exchange of experiences on which you will always have something to advise and explain everything that was not before a hundred times already explained. Do not want to pay money - use the free version. Even considering some of their shortcomings on paid counterparts, they still give you more assured protection than hacked Pay product. Modern giants in the field of security by contrast are well aware that the lion's share of their products are used illegally. Once and for all stop it is impossible, and such action would materially lessen the visibility of the product masses. Therefore, large companies of antivirus products do not try to completely prevent the possibility of fraudulent use of their product, but only visible to the user reduce the effectiveness of protection. This approach brings a much more valuable results than open ban. Person using the product illegally, sooner or later noticed some annoying bugs a broken anti-virus and asks you about a legal version of the product, whether paid or unpaid representative of the lineup for virtual security.

And the bugs are different:

- Release date signature databases is different from the current more than a month, but the program still says that the base acute;
- Unknown processes overload the machine, significantly slowing down the system, but anti-virus persistently claims that the system is clean;
- Unexpected hang-up and departure antivirus software, etc.

Although, by and large, these symptoms do not necessarily indicate that you are using an illegal copy. The reasons for all this, of course, may be canceled and no one mistakes the developers and rare, but accurate achievement virus. Nevertheless, the authors of the license software set, set, and will put more and more cunning traps on the way illegals. Therefore, you should always think of a few hours, before deciding to entrust the protection of your computer hacked antivirus. Is not much more reliable than the protection of his own apartment from thieves secret way to connect to the neighbor's burglar alarm. Now, I hope you understand that guaranteed protection for your computer will have to fork out a little. If you have enough money only to the PC and widescreen monitor, you should find a free antivirus and firewall - perhaps not the most convenient, but, nevertheless, quite reliable way to protect data. Using cracked antivirus software and firewalls can be, if you for that someone pays - then you can with the money to insure your data and get financial compensation (for drugs) in the case of their loss.


In general, the point was clear that the dark matter =). Of course, with bad habits easier to accept than to fight. "Should I have Eset kryaknuty or Casper, and everything in поряде with him always," - many think, and I'm not going to argue with them. There are people who do not update the signatures database for months and even years. They have a different perception of the virtual world, they feel safe, if they know that the antivirus is installed so spices that itself does not feel comfortable even for three licensing system security. But this material is not for them. They frighten even the fact that most of free antivirus no Russian language ... What? And you scared? Do not be afraid of looking as though you know a lot of red pop-up windows of his kryaknutogo counsel, except the words "Warning", "Virus Found!" etc. Anyway the most important thing in communications security - an untranslatable name and number of processes blocked ports. And, unless it frightens you, because you can search and Russifier;). Do not worry about the fact that you have little or nothing is heard about the free ways to protect information. After all, a huge percentage of the sale paid programs are on their own advertising promotion, and free food and perhaps even profitable, not just spin. Such products are rarely hear by accident - they even intentionally sometimes quite difficult to find. Nevertheless, it is quite possible, but to acquaint you with each of them closer to the time I had not come out. Search engine to help you, and the magic words "Free Antivirus" will serve you good service.

And today it all. Thank you for your attention, bye for now!

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Banks under fire. Malware vs. financial companies

For many people the word "hacker" is associated with the word "bank". This is not surprising, because for several decades, crackers, who wanted to "get" a lot of money, paid his calculating gaze is on the banks. And this is understandable: what can give the most money, if not an attack on a major bank?

But to break into servers that manage transactions and accounts, - a thankless task. It will attract too much attention, and attention increases the risk of being caught. So much more interesting to the attacker's just another option - it is to gain access to the assets of one bank's clients. Quite simply: less scale hacking - more likely to remain at large - inverse, speaking in mathematical language. This is where I would like today to stay. In this article I make out the following: the types and the work of malicious software that specializes in banks and other financial organizations, social engineering techniques used by hackers, attacks that are carried out in order to get information about your account or to seize control transaction. As well as reflect on the theme, "and how to avoid.

Financial malware - it is the name of the malicious programs are targeted at financial services companies in the classifications of anti-virus laboratories. In this case the monetary malware may include not only the program of one class (for example, not only Trojans daunloader'y, but keylogger ', etc.). To start, I think it will be useful to run a little statistics. This will greatly assist us in understanding the current situation at the moment and its differences from the situations that occurred in the past.

Some Statistics

According to statistics from Kaspersky Lab, after reducing the financial activity of writing malicious code at the end of 2006 was marked by a sharp jump from the number in the network, which already took place in 2007. Pay attention to the chart (Fig. 1) - shows that the jump was not impulsive, but just the opposite: the average stayed almost stable at sufficiently large values. Naturally, increasing the number of malicious software aimed at finance, and brought to an increase in attacks on banks. The present situation is slightly different, because values began to decline (see chart), but the number of attacks on banks remains at that level. As the first cause, which led to this turn of events, I would like to highlight a wide choice of technology attacks. Attackers use a completely different methods in fact, and not all of them require the participation of malicious software - hence the difference. The second reason is that most hackers prefer to modify an existing program than to write something completely new. This is quite understandable - why sit a few days, if sufficiently few hours?

Most bank malware aimed at specific region. This led to the creation of software that can carry out an attack on some banks (usually 1-3), usually located in the same region. An attacker can not prepare for malicious bank of another country before not acquainted with its structure protection, and make it easier for all with the bank, which is handy. Below is another chart, which reflects the percentage of malware that can attack several banks (Fig. 2). In addition, there has been the introduction of or attachment to the type of financial malware rootkit (rootkit) technology, whose task is to protect the malware from antivirus systems and their verification technologies. Given that rootkits are now at a fairly high level of development, and technology to successfully deceive the anti-virus software is not bad, made it difficult for antivirus laboratories.

By means of protection applies to polymorphism, but not one about which you all thought. The fact that the classical polymorphic viruses with no problems are determined by antivirus scanners. At the new level of development has been actively used server-side polymorphism, which is characterized by the fact that the script code modification is not in the body of the virus, but on a remote server. Thus, the algorithm can not analyze the script, and hence more difficult to identify malicious - remains the only generic-detection (detection of the common signs of malware), but it is not so reliable as signature.


Phishing mules and cash (money mules) - the two techniques of deception. In this case the first is designed to steal the rights data fraudulently, and the second - to launder the stolen money. Let's order. Activity distribution "phony" letters is still high - this suggests that fraud is sufficiently effective. Users fall for again and again. The reasons for this may be a few. Perhaps the most stupid - ignoring information about phishing e-mailings - our old-established national "maybe blow over." The second reason can be called a simple lack of awareness of users in terms of security, as a consequence - ignore messages about the absence of certificates. In general, the result is the same - the user without a doubt is the link and enter account data (plastic credit card) in the form of a fake bank website. There are banks here and the wine, and it is in the fact that most of their security systems use static passwords. Attacker enough to get the password, and access to an account in his pocket. To change this situation can only dynamic passwords that can be sent to the client by mail, SMS or just transferred to the bank on the media. However, most banks prefer simple static passwords - this is their weakness.

Money mules (still referred to as loot), as I said, intended to "launder" money. Every effort is quite simple: the site publishes vacancy announcement. "Financial Manager" by concluding a contract, nothing suspect. If you are using mules, the financial system of electronic money: the purses come mule means that it must be translated into other wallets, while keeping a commission of 5-15%. This helps attackers to escape punishment if the operation would be discovered and traced the bank or special services. In addition, the mules, in most cases are treated as partners, so do not hang the tag "easy income" for this occupation.

the Net

I think that the subtitle seemed strange to you. I shall now make a little explanation: there collected information about all the attacks, one way or another connected with traffic, its transmission, etc.

First in line is an attack, which is widely used for hacking, it is - to divert the traffic. One of the easiest ways is to change the redirection file hosts, which is located in Rute system at system32\drivers\etc. With this file, you can avoid requests for DNS-server. These servers (DNS) converts domain names into IP-addresses, because the request to the server can only address. If in some way to change the file, you can ensure that when entering a specific domain name request will be sent to a fake server.

Next on the list will go is already familiar to many and many times I have described the attack MitM (Man-in-the-Middle). Let me remind you: this attack is, as the name implies, is that between the server, the addressee and the sender there is a host-channel data interception. Naturally, the data that is sent to the user, may be altered or "doctored" for an attacker to obtain the desired result. Naturally, the interception takes place through financial malware, who both work as a saboteur to the victim computer. In such cases, the owner of the account in the Internet banking may provoke one deal, and doctored information coming to the server, make another.

Another technique of attacks, which belongs to the new school, a Man-in-the-Endpoint. This attack is different from MitM'a only that changes in traffic is not on the "middle", and on the local machine. Cost of time, of course, much more, but holding an illegal transaction does not present extra IP, which again, reduces the likelihood of attracting attention. The process has a look like this: Trojan infects the system and sends traffic to the remote computer, where the virus writer, analyzing the information received, prepares for another Trojan attack on a specific bank resources.

And what can we do?

Unequivocally that protect the banking system completely impossible. When the main drawback was static passwords, problem solved (and very successfully) any malicious programs that intercept keystrokes or fake forms on fake sites. When everything came around and began to introduce a system of dynamic passwords, it is to solve the problems with static, but did not stop the attackers - the battle went to the attack, aimed at the traffic. Therefore, the only thing you can do - constantly monitor the status, conduct nology and analyze suspicious transactions. This will solve some problems, the rest need to be addressed by continuing to update security systems, as in the war Hack vs. Security resistance varies in two directions and, most likely, will not come into equilibrium more than one century. So it all depends on the speed. Unfortunately, while losses from the attacks on financial institutions rising, that upsets. Therefore only hope for professionals in the field of IB, which under the force in some way to bring some stability in this area. On this I finish - I hope that the information led you to think about the situation, and most importantly - about his condition:).

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A software perspective

At the beginning of the new year, as in the last few weeks of last year, IT-community, Russia and the CIS countries are actively discussing the short and medium term regional markets. However, most not so much of the software market as the entire software industry in the FSU. Interestingly, the various participants in the debate sometimes come to opposite conclusions.

In 2007, Russia's retail software market grew by 35%. According to experts, the turnover of Russia's software distribution software market in 2007 - m amounted to $ 3.7 billion, the turnover of Russian companies in the world - $ 1.7 billion in 2008 Russia's software market has grown to five billion dollars. To obtain similar figures for the CIS as a whole, is enough to increase Russia's performance in half. The structure of the net sales of packaged software in 2008, according to a study association of independent software developers ISDEF, is as follows: 65% of software sales account for corporate customers, 20% - on the public sector, and only 15% of software products acquired private users. And the progress - a few years ago, private (home) users provide less than 5% of the market - piracy is the norm, though gradually yielding its positions. However, all these figures from experts attitude is ambiguous. So, for example, Famatech CEO Dmitry Kurashev believes that "objectively estimating the actual size of the software market is not easy: the financial information of most IT-companies were not disclosed.

However, the concern of market participants something else. In the very structure of the software market, as well as the reasons for its rapid growth in the past few years laid, as experts say, "mine, ready to detonate at any moment." The fact that the mechanism by which grew sales of software was completely identical to the mechanism of growth of the commodity component of Russia's economy. Head of Sales Department of the company Softline explains these mechanisms as follows: "Growth in sales of licensed software depends on many factors. Of course, one of the key factors are income redistribution from the primary market, ie companies, earning more willing to spend more, including the purchase of licensed software. Now, in times of crisis (and the fall in oil prices), deprived of crazy oil money, private, corporate customers can sharply curtail purchases. And that 65% of the market. It is about 70% of Russian enterprises have taken anti-crisis measures, and many of them, including saving and upgrading the existing IT-infrastructure. Of course, representatives of the software market believe that just to save on software certainly can not. So, CEO of Alawar Entertainment Lyskovsky Alexander (he is chairman of the association ISDEF) said, that "to reduce costs by eliminating the proprietary software - all the same, that is not to save." Well, as CEO of Internet supermarkets Softkey Felix Muchnik sure, "Reducing the cost of IT in the firm - is the same, that the dismissal of a cook in a restaurant. "But not only corporate clients reduce the cost of software - from the private users are not left behind. This indirectly contributes to the fact that in 2008, according to experts, some moved the process of Russia joining the WTO. And with this decreased and the activity of law enforcement in protecting intellectual property, including the fight against piracy. Private users feel more secure that there is a negative impact on sales of software for home PCs. Another trend is even more interesting: as noticed by the experts, private consumers started, where possible, use free software, replacing the expensive commercial programs for-profit counterparts, have a smaller but sufficient functionality. That is to say that the level of technical literacy of the average user is increasing along with its legal awareness.

Summarize all the above. 2008 financial plan was the most successful for software companies in Russia and CIS countries in the history of this market. But by the end of the year the situation was very serious, close to critical. And now companies are seriously thinking about how they survive at all in 2009. About how to implement a huge growth potential of the software market, participants in this market have to think about later. However, the most farsighted begin to act now. Russia Softline company has launched a venture fund volume of $ 20 million fund will invest in small companies engaged in software development. In Softline believe this area is very promising, noting at the same time that the financial crisis is difficult to look for new projects.

For information: company Softline operates in the market since 1993. The main sphere of activity - sales of software. Also Sofline engaged in IT consulting and training. The company's turnover in 2007 amounted to $ 292 million, exceeding three times compared to 2006.

Subsidiary Venture Fund Softline Venture Partners (SVP) is planning to invest in software developers in Russia and CIS. This unit told the head of corporate finance Softline Igor Chekunov. Initially planned to use their own funds, and a total fund intends to invest in start-up to $ 20 million Igor Chekunov said: "The company is considering investing in startups in software development, which have interesting developments in various fields of IT market. We would wanted to make first investment in the first half of 2009. " Softline is now considering the possibility to attract funds from the fund "Russia Venture Company and other investors. The investment in one project is planned at an average of $ 500 thousand - $ 1 million return of the Fund will be at least 35%. However, other market participants are not confident in the success of Softline Venture Partners. Top-manager of one of the largest Russian venture funds, said: "IT start-ups found in the current difficult conditions - is now almost no new projects being created. On the other hand, existing startups poumenshilis appetites - they are ready to negotiate with venture investors for a much more favorable Funds for the conditions. According to the director of venture financing investment company Troika Dialog, Artem YUKHIN, upon availability of funds to invest in IT - one of the best ways to invest money. In turn, investment director of venture fund ABRT Nicholas Mityushin sure that the project venture fund Softline can be successful, as the company invests its own money into the project. Mityushin said: "Investing in good software companies so that they are almost immediately profitable and saves money. Example - a company engaged in virtualization".

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Silicon Valley and its "honest children"

The phrase "Silicon Valley" has long been a household word - today they represent any techno park, any isolated area, which are concentrated high-tech production and development. But those who use this expression, as a rule, themselves know little about the history of the very - first - the Silicon Valley. Let's try to fill this gap.


Silicon Valley (Silicon Valley) - District of California, high-density high-tech companies - in the first place, computer and telecommunications. Silicon Valley is located in the San Francisco Bay: in fact it is the space between the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles. Today the main factors of this valley, a phenomenon called the presence of Stanford University and major cities within less than an hour away, sources of funding new companies, as well as superb Mediterranean-type climate. It all started back in 1891 when the valley near the town of Palo Alto as a bequest large landowner Lilenda Stanford opened Stanford University. Graduates of the new school worked well, but at the time to find a job in California, as a rule, could not, therefore, were forced to move to the east coast of the United States. Therefore, in the 20-ies administration from Stanford University, determined to raise the prestige of his high school, hired teachers from the east coast. One of them was an alumnus of Stanford electrical engineering professor Frederick Terman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Terman seriously concerned about the problem of brain drain, and he began to support students in their quest to found the company not far from the university. Among these students were William Hewlett and David Packard. In 1937 a small company Hewlett-Packard with a starting capital of $ 538 began to work in the garage - it now hangs a bronze plaque: "Birthplace of Silicon Valley."

The emergence of venture

During the Second World War was a great demand for new technologies from the military - and the innovative companies grow like mushrooms. But after the war, government funding of defense programs were largely curtailed, and the University began to experience financial difficulties. In the early 50's Frederick Terman (he became the rector of the university) took the initiative to donate free land to rent (sell it prohibits testament Lilenda Stanford) companies operating in the field of hi-tech. The first tenants were Eastman Kodak, General Electric, Shockley Transistor, Lockheed and Hewlett-Packard. That is how the Stanford Industrial Park - the world's first technology park. At the same time, to accelerate the economic development of the western coast of the U.S., was created by Stanford Research Institute. He coordinated and funded by government programs, for which concentrated brought here by private companies. At that time, were leading the state program associated with the defense, aviation and space exploration. To avoid stagnation in the post-war industry, the U.S. authorities in the early 50's created the Institute for Small Business and SBA approved the law on investment. The law stipulates the creation of small business investment companies whose capital is ensured not only by private sources, but also the state (on concessional terms). In practice, it looked like this: if the project received the approval of SBA, then to the investor's investment to three thousand dollars more added nine thousand from the state.

In 60-ies started to operate the first venture capital firms (venture - risk, venture). Their creators realized that the main thing in hi-tech-business - not financial assistance to young companies, and investing in their own business knowledge and experience. Then the company receives not only the funds needed for development, but also the right connections and the ability to structure their business processes. In the late 60's venture capitalists have begun to finance the company's Stanford Industrial Park. Then it was associated with greater risk - of ten companies, two were ruined. However, if successful, would bring an investment of up to 300% of the profits and pays for three decades of failed investments. Successful investing is supported by three out of ten, the remaining companies worked without any special achievements, with about 40 per cent yield. Such cooperation was beneficial to scientists - they have access to funds much more than state appropriations. Venture business added to the three pillars of Technopark (education, science, production), the fourth - financial. "Intellectual capital, plus venture capital" - as in Silicon Valley today and formulate a formula for success. In the 70 280 hectares owned by the university, became insufficient to accommodate all comers. New companies started to explore the nearby town of San Jose - the capital of the valley, and then the entire valley, and was then nicknamed Silicon. In Stanford University, a considerable role in the formation of the whole complex of Silicon Valley have played the adjoining University of California (Berkeley) and University of San Francisco. Development of Silicon Valley has caused three world innovative breakthrough. This development of semiconductor technology in the 70's, computer technology in the 80's and network technologies and the Internet in the 90's. Just a few decades, Silicon Valley of brave experiment into a profitable enterprise: the combined annual income of 4,000 companies located in the Valley - $ 500 billion

The phenomenon of Silicon Valley

Today, many states are trying to repeat the success of its territory in Silicon Valley. In Europe and Asia are being built or already built similar to its parks, public subsidies for hi-tech, etc. However, Professor, Nobel Laureate in Economics, Gary Becker, have long studied the phenomenon of Silicon Valley, I am sure: for the development of dynamic industrial clusters requires flexible economic environment, rather than government industrial policy.

In 1999, venture capitalists invested more than $ 6 billion in new companies Valley - startups. Stanford and the University of California continues to lead the formation of new IT-companies. In addition, in the U.S. are very few obstacles to the creation of new firms, investment of private capital and going public limited company. The elimination of artificial obstacles to the founding of the company (as is done in the U.S.) is very different from the generous subsidy programs in Germany, France and some other countries. Subsidies lead to the creation of "safe" new companies, which mainly meet the needs of bureaucrats, not markets. Incredible spontaneity typical of Silicon Valley, can not play due to bureaucratic support.

Fairchild and Fairchildren

For the semiconductor industry company Fairchild Semiconductor was roughly what the firm Marconi - radio and Xerox - in the field of copying documents. But the main thing in it was not scientific discoveries and patents, and people and their ideas. Later, former employees of the company became known as Fairchildren.

History of Fairchild Semiconductor begins with the inventor of the transistor by William Shockley. In 1945 Shockley, then worked at Bell Labs, found it fascinating semiconductor amplifier, operating like an electronic tube. The idea was supported by staff Shockley Bell Labs - Bardin and Brattayn. The first working transistor, engineers created in 1948. For this development in 1956, all three received the Nobel Prize - it was the first Nobel awarded not for pure science, but for the technology. Interestingly, co-author Shockley - John Bardeen - the only one who received the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, and for very different things. The second award was given to him in 1972 for an explanation of the phenomenon of superconductivity. In 1955, Shockley retired from Bell Labs and founded the Palo Alto company Shockley Semiconductor Labs - one of the first startups future of Silicon Valley. The company then this was the first and the only one that dealt specifically semiconductors. But business is not complicated - it is believed that Shockley was a weak manager. In addition, he made a bet on the germanium structure, whereas it was already clear that the future of silicon.

In 1957, eight senior engineers left the company Shockley and founded his own company - the very Fairchild Semiconductor. The names of two of the eight now know everything: Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. And then, in 1957, the founders of Fairchild asked for money to the financier Arthur Rock on - the only one of their ideas seemed interesting. Rock found those who agreed to invest the required $ 1.3 million - a colossal sum for those times. Since this event is counted and the history of the new method of financing innovative projects - venture capital investments. That Arthur Rock coined the term "venture capital". Initially, the production process in Fairchild Semiconductor was: silicon and germanium wafers manually loaded into the fiery furnace for doping. They are then sawn diamond circles on the individual "slices" or "chips", which under the microscope manually soldered delicate gold wire findings. In 1959, Robert Noyce put forward the idea of chips - a chip, in which all connections are put on the crystal directly in the production process. Later discovered that a little earlier the same idea put forward fellow Texas Instruments, Jack Kilby. It is true that Noyce's technology was developed in greater detail - it was a so-called planar technology with aluminum interconnections, which is used today. Although Kilby had applied earlier (in February 1959 - first) than Neuss (in July of that year), but Noyce had received a patent. After ten years of trials, it was decided to consider Kilby and Noyce co-inventors of integrated circuits: Kilby as the first had suggested, and Noyce - as the creator of a working technology. In 1963, the Department of linear integrated circuits at Fairchild led the young engineer Robert Vidlar. He became the first developer of semiconductor operational amplifiers (OC). They were used to perform operations - addition, multiplication, integration, etc. - Over analog signals - in particular, in analog computers, which then tried to compete with digital techniques. Vidlar one of the first realized that for the cost of the chip is practically indifferent to how many transistors to fit on it - ten or a hundred. In 1966, Robert Vidlar resigned from Fairchild and moved to National Semiconductors - a firm that later in the late 80's Fairchild rescued from bankruptcy.

Conquest of the world

But the most famous Fairchildren have become the Founding Fathers - all the same Noyce and Moore. In 1968, they resigned from Fairchild and founded Integrated Electronics. Its abbreviated title - Intel - now known to all. I will not now go into the history of Intel - it requires at least a separate article. I note only that the investor of the new company has all the same Arthur Rock. By the way, it is partly, we must have and the birth of Apple. Almost simultaneously with Intel, Fairchild came from the depths of another famous company - AMD. Its founder, Jeremy Sanders received his education in the field of electronics, but found his true vocation as a seller. At Fairchild, he appeared in 1961 and soon became director of marketing. Soon, Sanders realized the main feature of semiconductor production: growth of sales reduces the value of chips in the tens or hundreds of times, and this, in turn, expands the market. In this electronic chip itself is not worth almost nothing - almost all of its cost the sum of money invested in the development and organization of production. Accordingly, if the produce millions of chips, then they will cost a penny. That is, to outperform competitors, we can start to set very low prices. So Fairchild and received. Sanders later recalled: "We were going to make chips at the factory, which we have not been using the process technology, which we have not yet developed, but the only one worthy of attention was the fact that we have entered the market with a price of $ 1.05 per chip, which cost above $ 150 . We sold per the future. " This marketing model is very successful. And in 1969, followed by Moore and Noyce, Sanders resigned from Fairchild and began searching for investors for the new company. Arthur Rock he refused, saying: "All the technology companies, on which I lost money, were founded by people from the marketing department." But it is interesting that one of those who invested in the project, was ... Robert Noyce. However, the main role played in the new endeavor that the U.S. government (as well as many giants - for example, IBM) have never ordered a product from firm-monopolist. So Intel executives simply were forced to build their competitors.

The peculiarity of the company, called Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), was, first, the absence of any technological developments in the portfolio of the founder. After the company was established not as an engineer, and the seller. The second feature is characterized by the words of the Sanders: "Put people first, and then the products with the profits go." AMD - one of the first companies in Silicon Valley, which has been clearly articulated corporate culture. No wonder that after the crisis that followed the Sept. 11 attacks, AMD has become almost the only company that has paid off with the sacked staff. Until the mid-90's not involved in the development of AMD processors, but to conduct their own research in the field of flash memory (it is now owned 13% of the market). In 1995, she undertook and for microprocessors, successfully reclaimed a hefty market share from Intel. In January of 2000 Sanders resigned as CEO of the company he founded. At the time of departure, he remained the oldest of the existing senior management Fairchildren. Very Fairchild in 1996, withdrew from the NS and again became an independent and prosperous company. One of its innovations have become famous, in particular, MOSFET-transistors - crystals, which allowed direct from logic chips to control the various powerful devices. But the main thing - Fairchild's products are always present in almost every electronic device.

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